Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale Ultimi lavori pubblicati Copyright (c) 2004-2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved it PHP 7.3.1 60 Forest@ Web Site Articoli Scientifici: Stima del valore paesaggistico di aree forestali interessate da danni da vento nella Foresta di Vallombrosa <p><b>Abstract</b>: In November 2013 and in March 2015 the Vallombrosa Forest was affected by high intensity windstorms, with gusts of over 160 km h-1. Windstorms caused significant damages to the forest stands, involving in particular silver fir woods (Abies alba Mill.), the most widespread forest typology over the entire surface of the forest. These meteorological events led to the removal of several hectares of tree cover, causing inevitable ecological, economic and social consequences; however, they also opened new hidden landscapes and created new habitats potentially useful for species linked to open environments. Within these premises, the study was aimed to estimate the monetary value of the new landscape created by windstorms in some forest units of the Vallombrosa Forest. The method is based on survey implemented by Contingent Valuation technique and willingness to pay (WTP) for the maintenance of the opening created in the forest. The majority of interviewed resulted willing to pay for the new landscape and mainly with amounts between 1 and 150 euros year-1. Assuming different potential annual users and capitalization rates, the landscape value of the study areas was estimated between 419,902 and 37,314,877 euros. The study (with suggested improvements) can be considered a methodological basis, aiming to support the decision making processes about the planning of the study areas in the perspective of integrated management of forest ecosystem services. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Windstorm, Landscape Value, Contingent Valuation Method, Vallombrosa Forest, Cultural Ecosystem Services </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (4): 67-72 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4426-020<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Biancone F, Galipò G, Sacchelli S Articoli Scientifici 2023-08-24 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Tavole di cubatura e laser scanner terrestre: l’innovazione tecnologica al servizio della dendrometria <p><b>Abstract</b>: Ecologically and economically sustainable planning of forest resources requires tools capable of providing estimates with adequate accuracy on volume, biomass and woody increments. Interest in these attributes has increased since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has been given a further boost by the birth of the carbon credit market in the early 2000s. However, the data collection necessary to formulate allometric models for estimating wood volume is challenging, both due to the considerable amount of data required and because the necessary destructive measurements are very laborious. Furthermore, given the great structural, managerial and environmental diversity that characterizes the Italian forests, the sample size for the development of allometric models must necessarily be large. Over the years, all these aspects have led to a progressive abandonment of measurements in the forests for the production of volume tables. Recent applications of the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) for collecting dimensional information on trees have demonstrated their effectiveness. In this study we present the work carried out in the autumn/winter 2022-2023 for the creation of new volume tables for the black pine forests in Vallombrosa (FI - Central Italy), based on data collected with a TLS. The study involved the same pine forests studied in 1969 for the production of volume tables in Vallombrosa. After showing the methods and analyzes needed to obtain the volume tables, the paper discusses the results in comparison with those produced in 1969. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Allometric Equations, Precision Forestry, Digitization, Dendrometry, Forest Management, Forest Planning </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (3): 61-66 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4401-020<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Puletti N, Guasti M, Innocenti S, Scotti R Articoli Scientifici 2023-07-24 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Foreste digitali: innovazioni e opportunità <p><b>Abstract</b>: The forestry sector in Italy is facing issues related to the need to make the most of environmental, territorial and socio-economic opportunities. The research is called upon to translate technological advances into practical applications, even in the field of geomatics and information and communication technologies. The exploitation of precision technologies can foster innovation and the improvement of management processes as well as the development of new products useful for forest owners, entrepreneurs, forest technicians and citizens, with benefits for the quality of forest production, the reduction of production costs and the reduction of environmental and social impacts. This note provides a brief overview of precision technologies applied to forest farm-scale monitoring, silviculture management, logging, poplar farming, forest nursery and forest product traceability. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Precision Forestry, Forest Geomatics, Information And Communication Technologies </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (2): 52-60 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4353-020<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Corona P, Costa C, Barbetti R, Bergante S, Cesaretti L, Chiarabaglio Pier M, Chirici G, Giannetti F, Ferrara C, Gennaro M, Guasti M, Laschi A, Mariotti B, Marra E, Mattioli W, Puletti N, Marchi E Commenti & Prospettive 2023-04-17 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Resilienza, plasticità e dinamiche delle pinete di pino d’Aleppo <p><b>Abstract</b>: Post-fire natural regeneration of Aleppo pine forest in the Gargano promontory (Southern Italy) is documented by means of photographs taken soon after fire and some years later. The potential of pine for adaptation to climate change and fire disturbance through its phenotypic plasticity is highlighted, and future dynamics of Aleppo pine forests and management perspectives are considered. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Wildfire, Natural Regeneration, Climate Change, Forest Management </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (2): 48-51 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0045-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M, Moretti N Comunicazioni Brevi 2023-04-02 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Il modello di gestione della rete Natura 2000 in Puglia: opinioni e aspettative dei portatori d’interesse <p><b>Abstract</b>: The implementation of integrated approach in the management of sites of the Natura 2000 network presupposes the stakeholders’ involvement to efficiently combine the nature conservation at the sites with the main human activities (tourism-recreational, agricultural and forestry activities). The aim of this study is to investigate the main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the current management model of the Natura 2000 network in the Puglia region through the stakeholders’ opinions and point of views. To this end, a semi-structured questionnaire was face-to-face administered to 27 stakeholders (61.4% of identified stakeholders). From a methodological point of view, a SWOT-AHP analysis was implemented to identify a ranking of individual strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats related to the management of the Natura 2000 network in Puglia. In addition, a social network analysis was developed to understand the efficiency of current network of relationships in the management of Natura 2000 network and the potential for improvement in a future network. The results show the need to increase the level of inclusiveness in decision-making processes related to the management of the Natura 2000 network. Furthermore, the results of this study show the scarcity of human and financial resources available to managers as a key factor on which to intervene (weakness point). Finally, particular attention should be paid to the main threat underlined by the interviewees: the loss and fragmentation of habitats due to anthropic causes and abiotic factors. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Nature Conservation, Natura 2000 Sites, Integrated Approach, Social Network Analysis, SWOT Analysis </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (2): 39-47 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4290-020<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Tucci G, Notaro S, Paletto A Articoli Scientifici 2023-03-29 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: I boschi vetusti nel Parco del Pollino: situazione attuale e prospettive future <p><b>Abstract</b>: Old-growth forests have a primary environmental and ecological value, as they closely recall primeval forests and the natural forest landscape that was spread throughout Italy and Europe before man intervention heavily altered the functioning of most natural ecosystems. These ecosystems are more and more recognized as keystones of environmental policies (i.e., the EU Biodiversity Strategy 2030) aimed to preserve biodiversity and mitigate the impacts of climate change. A recent report highlights that Europe’s old-growth forests account for only 3 percent of the overall forest surface. The majority of italian old-growth forests are located along the Apennines, especially in the Pollino, Sila and Aspromonte National Parks, in remote montane areas characterized by irregular topographical conditions (i.e., high slopes and/or shallow soils) which hamper the access and exploitation of these less productive stands, thus allowing the survival of old-growth forests for many centuries. The ongoing climate change is a significant challenge to the conservation of old-growth forests, particularly in areas such as the Mediterranean basin, where an intensification of extreme climate events is expected. Heat waves can exacerbate drought’s negative impacts on tree growth and survival, leading to reduced woody carbon stocks and biodiversity in old-growth forests. To date, there is poor understanding of such highly valuable and extremely fragile natural ecosystems in Italy. Insights are available based on data gathered as part of two research programs, funded by the Italian Ministry of the Environment and Land and Sea Protection, with the purpose of creating a Network of Old Growth Forests in Italy’s National Parks. In this study, we aimed to highlight the role and importance of old-growth forests, focusing on those located within the Pollino National Park. A comprehensive overview of the key strengths and weaknesses, that mark these peculiar forest ecosystems, was followed by a discussion of the future outlook, grounded on strategies that will ensure not only the protection and conservation of these ecosystems, but also their development and promotion. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Biodiversity, Natural Ecosystem, Forest Management, Old-growth Forests, Structural Heterogeneity </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (1): 22-29 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4303-020<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Castellaneta M, Schettino A, Travascia D, Lapolla A, Colangelo M, Marchianò V, Bernardo L, Gargano D, Passalacqua N, Rivelli AR, Misano G, Regina L, Maradei V, Digilio S, Viggiano P, Ripullone F Articoli Scientifici 2023-02-16 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Quadro della digitalizzazione del sistema istituzionale forestale nazionale. Il punto al 2020 <p><b>Abstract</b>: Digitization is a priority objective on the Italian government’s agenda, yet international indicators recognise a low level of implementation in Italy. The delegation of jurisdiction on forestry to the various Regions and Autonomous Provinces (R&PA), the involvement of numerous institutions with indirect authority and the absence of a national coordination structure may explain the backwardness that characterizes the Italian forestry system today. In this study, an initiative was undertaken to investigate the computerization and digitization in the forestry sector. Basic information was collected by conducting interviews and scrutinizing the websites of the R&PA, with the aim of defining the degree and level of digitization of each R&PA, and thus of the national forestry system. Few R&PAs have a high degree of digitization, while none reach an advanced level, with a decreasing gradient along the North-South axis. The national digital forestry system is characterized by a degree of 0.74 and a level of 2.24. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Innovation and Communication Technologies, Index of Degree and Index of Level, Regional Forestry Platforms, Ri.Selv.Italia Project </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (1): 30-38 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4265-020<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Carbone F, Alivernini A, Bascietto M, Oreti L, Barbarese F Articoli Scientifici 2023-02-16 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: In ricordo del Prof. Giovanni Bernetti (1934-2022) <p><b>Abstract</b>: Giovanni Bernetti passed away on 21 December 2022. For several decades he taught forest mensuration, forest management and silviculture at the University of Firenze. Remembering him as a master, with whom I shared an entire professional life arouses emotions that are not easy to communicate. Giovanni Bernetti is to be considered among the great masters of Italian forest sciences. As a keen interpreter of forest dynamics and management, he disseminated his deep knowledge in several books and seminal papers of high scientific and professional influence as well. Thank you so much indeed, Prof. Bernetti, for your great cultural and scientific legacy. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, Forest management, Ecology, University of Florence, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (1): 20-21 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0046-020<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> La Marca O Editoriali 2023-01-18 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Suolo, humipedon e gestione forestale <p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest soil is a living and important part of the forest. It is essential for the development and reproduction of plants and for the evolution of the entire ecosystem. Proper management of the forest must also take into account the vitality and biodiversity of the soil. Due to an erroneous and non-biological conception of soil, and consequent difficulty in linking the physical aspect to the biological functioning of this complex ecosystem, the official soil classification of the last 30 years has abandoned the original link with climate, vegetation and the ecology of the environment in which soil evolves and coexists. In recent years the soil profile was divided into three sections (Humipedon, Copedon and Lithopedon), and it was then possible to link the first and most biological section of the soil to the characteristics of the environment and to its genesis. In particular, it is now possible to distinguish organic horizons generated essentially by arthropods and enchytraeids in cold and acidic or dry and arid environments, from organo-mineral horizons created by earthworms in more temperate and mesotrophic situations. Each set of horizons can be assigned to a system or form of humus, with important implications for forestry. For example, earthworms are more present in the early and late stages of sylvogenesis; by completely recycling the litter, they accelerate the provision of the organic and inorganic nutrients of the soil to the roots and the pedofauna. In general, it is now possible to associate a humus system with a given environment, with a spatial and temporal scale suitable for forest management. This paper promotes a more in-depth knowledge of the soil, to encourage foresters to take care of even half of the forest under their boots. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Humus, Soil, Humipedon, Soil Dynamics, Forms of Humus, Spruce Forest </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (1): 13-19 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4293-020<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Zampedri R, Zanella A, Giannini R Commenti & Prospettive 2023-01-15 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Cambiamenti climatici in atto: osservazioni sugli impatti degli eventi siccitosi sulle foreste toscane <p><b>Abstract</b>: The empirical observation of the impacts of drought and heat waves that occurred between 2017 and 2022 in several forest areas of Tuscany allowed to describe various processes and effects on forest trees and shrubs. The most severe impacts were observed on the evergreen Mediterranean tall woodlands and the aged coppices (on holm oak trees), causing defoliation and even mortality. In most cases, the attempts of resprouting from dormant buds (from the base of the tree trunk or in the crown), following the drought events, were not successful. Deciduous broad-leaved trees (beech, downy oak) suffered a strong summer defoliation, especially on steep slopes with shallow soils and south-facing aspect. These species were generally able to replenish the foliage the following year. In the most unfavorable conditions, however, we observed extensive attacks of opportunistic parasites, such as the fungi of the genus Biscogniauxia, which were favored by drought and were the ultimate cause of mortality. Turkey oak showed mortality in small groups or individual trees. Heat and drought also affected several minor tree species, with defoliation, desiccation and, in the most serious causes, death of the tree. Some meso-hygrophilous species that are restricted with relict populations to specific microclimatic sites within the Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean habitats were also impacted, with consequences on biodiversity, regeneration, and production of fruits for wildlife. Increasing drought and heat will trigger regressive dynamic processes that will lead in many sites to the transformation of holm oak forests into bushy forms of scrub, and of scrublands into sparse garrigues or even steppes. A more intense natural thinning of aged coppice stands with especially Turkey oak is also occurring, due to the combined effect of drought and intra- or inter-specific competition. The implementation of a regional monitoring system is recommended, based on the integration of past and existing experiences with new initiatives, to quantify the dynamics, extent and severity of the impacts. A crucial point is the need to adapt forestry, and especially utilization of coppice woods, to the changed ecological conditions to avoid increasing the impact on them. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Biodiversity Loss, Biotic Interactions, Defoliation, Heat Waves And Drought, Tree Mortality </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (1): 1-9 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4224-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Bussotti F, Bettini D, Carrari E, Selvi F, Pollastrini M Articoli Scientifici 2023-01-03 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Vegetazione, suolo, DNA ed evoluzione naturale <p><b>Abstract</b>: Dialogue with Sandro Pignatti on natural evolution, considering the soil as a living matrix in which the recycling of organic matter and DNA takes place. How vegetation interacts with the soil and how it is not the species that evolve but the ecosystem that contains them. The hypothesis of a still poorly understood genetic exchange in relation to the biodegradation process is raised. Recent research in soil microbiology and biodiversity highlights a functional and primordial collaboration between living beings in the exploitation of natural resources. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Natural Evolution, DNA Recycling, Castelporziano, Soil, Biodiversity </p><p><i>Forest@ 20 (1): 10-12 (2023) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4285-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Zanella A Commenti & Prospettive 2023-01-03 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Un percorso sfidante per la pianificazione forestale in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: The recent forestry law in Italy (TUFF) provides that the forest planning system managed by the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces should be, to a certain extent, standardized on a national scale. In this perspective, in order to standardize also the forest planning documents, a specific implementing decree, issued at the end of 2021, provides for common minimum standards at national level. Both the TUFF and the implementing decree are the shared result of a broad and long consultation under both a technical and political profile. However, various regional administrative and technical bodies do not seem fully aware that these decrees do not only set a univocal vision at national level of forest planning tools from a terminological point of view, but also univocally define their technical contents, according to the logic of the minimum national criteria: the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces are now called upon to adapt their regulations and procedures with respect to such terminology and minimum technical contents. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Management Plan, Strategic Forest Plan, Forest Plan Elaboration, Forest Plan Mapping </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (4): 95-97 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4175-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Corona P, Cucca B, Alivernini A Commenti & Prospettive 2022-08-26 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: La vivaistica forestale in Italia al bivio: sfide e strategie <p><b>Abstract</b>: The recognition of the key role of forests in contrasting the dramatic effects of climate change and biodiversity crisis is the pillar of many initiatives on a global, European, and national scale calling for afforestation campaigns. The Italian forest nursery sector is currently inadequate to meet the demand for tree seedlings for the national campaigns. Forest nursery production is characterized by regional or local companies that are remarkably different from each other in organization and efficiency. It is therefore urgent to develop a comprehensive restructuring of the entire sector to be able to respond to the specific needs of forestry projects in Italy and Europe. In this paper, we present a series of key principles and criteria aimed at guiding the renaissance of the sector. Strategic actions are proposed by integrating research, governance, public/private partnership, training, and communication. The strategic approach presented is based on a collaborative structure integrating various skills and responsibilities. The first step is an expert review of the Basic Materials (BM) included in the National Register thanks to the development of the genetic studies of forest stands and the inclusion of shrub and herbaceous species, essentials for ecosystem restoration projects counteracting the biodiversity crisis. A series of actions concerns the aspects of certification, voluntary or prescriptive, of the quality of BM, and the ultimate harmonization of national production to European standards. Particular importance needs to be devoted to the collection, evaluation, and conservation of seeds to develop innovative solutions both for the production of BM and for specific implementation phases of afforestation projects and ecosystem restoration. The governance phase might be implemented through the creation of interregional centers with the duty of collecting and conserving seeds, thus enhancing the existing experiences of outstanding regional and provincial tree nurseries with the support of the National Centers for the study and conservation of Forest Biodiversity. Furthermore, the promotion of partnerships between public and private companies and the creation of a shared and accessible national platform represent strategic actions of primary importance. A fundamental role is then assigned to the implementation of training programs and the construction of an open and incremental communication plan. Thanks to these actions it will be possible to place forest nurseries at the center of the relationships between tree planting and afforestation plans and programs, integrated forest design, implementation of new forests, and their adaptive management. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Nursery Stock Production, Basic Materials, Forest Genetic Resources, Forest Reproductive Material, Environmental Governance, Active Partnership </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (4): 85-94 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4193-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Mariotti B, Mezzalira G, Allasia E, Fazio F, Fiorentin R, Maltoni A, Marchetti M, Matteucci G, Mori P, Motta R, Piotti A, Rositi A, Sabatti M, Tognetti R, Salbitano F Commenti & Prospettive 2022-08-25 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Le condizioni delle foreste italiane stanno peggiorando a causa di eventi climatici estremi? Evidenze dalle reti di monitoraggio nazionali ICP Forests - CON.ECO.FOR. <p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree defoliation and mortality are triggered in Europe by extreme climatic events that are recurring since the beginning of XXI century. Data from the ICP Forests monitoring networks reveal a general worsening of tree conditions in the last ten years, as consequence of the drought and heat waves that affected the Southern (2017) and Central Europe (2018-2019). In Italy a significant increase of defoliation and tree mortality, assessed on the extensive (Level I) monitoring network, was observed after the 2017 dry summer, which impacted mainly the broadleaved forests (beech and oak forests) in the peninsular regions. Coniferous forests of the alpine belt were severely impacted in 2021, probably because of the co-occurrence of multiple causes, involving windstorm and bark beetle attacks. Chestnut forests suffer from pest (insect and pathogen) attacks. The intensive (Level II) monitoring network provides cases of study and allows to carry out specific cause-effect studies concerning the physiological effects on the environmental impacts, as well to observe the ecological processes following the disturbing events. Defoliation caused by drought or pest attacks induces the loss of physiological defenses (namely non-structural carbohydrates), that need several years to be restored. Then, the occurrence of more frequent and repeated heat and drought waves can produce irreversible effects. In this view, the long-term forest health monitoring is key to detect the extent and direction of changes in forest structure and composition, and represents an important tool for forest conservation and management. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Defoliation, Drought, Forest Health Monitoring, Heat Waves, ICP Forests, Tree Mortality </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (4): 74-81 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4134-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Bussotti F, Papitto G, Di Martino D, Cocciufa C, Cindolo C, Cenni E, Bettini D, Iacopetti G, Pollastrini M Articoli Scientifici 2022-07-12 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Tutta colpa dei Borboni? Il caso della legge forestale del 1826 <p><b>Abstract</b>: We talk about the 1826 forestry act of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, under Francis I of Bourbon. Those who talk about it, speak ill of it. The so-called “clearcut with reserves”, prescribed by the Bourbon’s act, is thought to have caused the distruction of many southern forests. Here we reason about this act, and suggest the Bourbons took several faults that were not their own. For instance, many forest cuts carried out in southern regions after the unification of Italy (under a new forestry regulatory regime) were defined, officially, as “shelterwood cuts”. However, they were nothing but “clearcut with reserves”. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest, Clearcut, Southern Italy, Naples, Kingdom </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (4): 82-84 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0047-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2022-07-12 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Verso l’istituzione dell’Albo nazionale delle “Foreste vetuste”: la prospettiva della diversità vegetale del sottobosco <p><b>Abstract</b>: The publication of the Decree that has established the Italian network of old-growth forests opens new opportunities for nature conservation and new challenges for scientists. A fundamental criterion for the identification of old-growth forests is related to a “characteristic biodiversity” due to the absence of disturbances for at least sixty years. In this contribution we mainly discuss shortcomings, potential interpretation and perspectives related to the application of this criterion for the vascular plants living in the understorey. We show that the understorey diversity (both taxonomic and functional) patterns with forest maturity are strongly context-dependent and stand structural features are fundamental drivers. As a consequence, considering the impressive heterogeneity of Italian forests, the strict threshold included in the Decree (sixty years since the last disturbance) can hardly be used to distinguish a “characteristic biodiversity”. Finally, we invite all the Italian scientists dealing with forest ecosystems to strongly collaborate in order to accept the challenge introduced by the Decree. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Policy, Forest Specialist Species, Functional Diversity, Plant Diversity, Species Richness </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (3): 63-66 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4142-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Chelli S, Cervellini M Commenti & Prospettive 2022-06-16 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Valutazione dei fattori di vulnerabilità della riserva naturale Bosco Pantano di Policoro: l’approccio dinamico SWOT - AHP <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Regional Oriented Reserve “Bosco Pantano”, in the Policoro territory, preserves the testimony of what was one of the most interesting lowland forest formations in Southern Italy, "a fossil" that survived to the uncontrolled land drainage and intensive agriculture occurred in the last century. Therefore, for several millennia, floodplain forests were indiscriminately exploited according to economical demands, even though the risks of biodiversity and habitat losses. The richness of species and ecosystems constitutes a major attribute of our planet, as well as an essential component of the stability of the Earth’ diverse environment. In this context, the aim of our work was to detect, on the basis of data collected through questionnaire, the most relevant factors that might impact on the ecosystem vulnerability of the reserve, either now or in the future, and thus undermine its survival. Once a brief overview of the historical, social and economic background, the hybrid method SWOT - AHP (A’WOT) was implemented. So, the implementation of such method, consisting of four analysis steps, allowed us to categorie the different SWOT factors. Our outcomes highlighted the stakeholders’ common interest in pointing to the unique traits of “Bosco Pantano” lowland forest, in order to ensure preservation and to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless, the findings revealed some critical points, i.e., the poor attention to the weaknesses factors, that may compromise the reserve’ survival. In addition, the results showed a general poor ability to appreciate and benefit from all the positive feedbacks, coming out of research and monitoring activities on the habitat. Hence, we were able to define measures and/or strategies geared to the preservation and valorization of the "Bosco Pantano" of Policoro. Specifically, the focus on multiple intervention lines could be encouranged, by exploiting the biotype’s peculiarity and uniqueness in order to promote the development of sustainable forms of tourism. It may also be advisable to implement projects aiming at the study of the the forest dynamics, as well as to institute control and monitoring organs. Lastly, we should also encourage all dissemination channels and tools in order to improve people’ s environmental awareness. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  SWOT-AHP Analysis, Biodiversity, Bosco Pantano, Climate Change, Forest Vulnerability, Management, Stakeholders </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (3): 67-73 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4133-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Travascia D, Castellaneta M, Colucci A, Cirelli G, Lapolla A, Misano G, De Capua E, Rosito M, Ripullone F Articoli Scientifici 2022-06-16 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Un nuovo paradigma per la gestione forestale sostenibile: la selvicoltura “più” prossima alla natura <p><b>Abstract</b>: Closer-to-Nature Forest Management is a new concept proposed both in the EU Forest Strategy for 2030 and in the EU Biodiversity strategy for 2030. Closer-to-Nature Forest Management aims to improve the conservation values and climate resilience of multifunctional, managed forests in Europe. We present the concept based on a set of seven guiding principles and discuss main problems and opportunities of its application at continental scale and in Italy. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, Forest Management, Biodiversity, European Union, Strategy, Ecosystem Services </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (3): 52-62 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4124-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R, Larsen JB Commenti & Prospettive 2022-05-22 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Prendersi cura dei boschi italiani, se ne parla al prossimo congresso SISEF <p><b>Abstract</b>: Italian forests have expanded considerably in recent decades and accumulated much woody biomass. It opens up new horizons in silviculture and forest management. Recently, we heard some calls for an increase in harvests in Italian forests. However, there are some cautions to be considered. In many cases (large areas in the centre-south of the Italian peninsula, for example), Italian forests start from conditions in which the woody biomass stock was very low due to over-exploitation, which lasted many centuries. This makes the path towards ecosystem functionality and safety long and uncertain. The climate crisis also advises against considering the current dynamics of growth and carbon uptake as granted. We recognize that the Italian furniture industry needs wood and that currently almost 80% of this wood is imported from abroad, involving environmental and ethical issues. However, for various reasons (composition, structure, cultivation methods, etc.), the type of wood asked for by furniture manufacturers is scarcely present in Italian forests, and it is unlikely that this will change in the next few years. Therefore, the forecasted increase in harvesting to replace the wood that industries import today from abroad is by no means sure it will be effective. In general, it is necessary to avoid the most simple solutions, which in Italy are often coppice cutting and coppice wood for energy purposes. The recovery from a condition of past degradation and the accumulation of biomass in Italian forests is an opportunity and opens up a vast horizon for innovative forest management and silviculture. Provided we know how to orient ourselves within this horizon and implement a true culture and care of the forest (extensive closeR-to-nature silviculture towards continuity in forest cover, above all), in full respect of the “rights” of the forest, the safeguarding of which guarantees the major benefits that the forest provides to the society. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Italy, Forest, Wood, Harvest, Coppice, High-forest, Silviculture </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (3): 49-51 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0048-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2022-05-17 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: La ricerca italiana ed il ruolo della comunità scientifica nella realizzazione dell’Albo nazionale delle “Foreste vetuste” <p><b>Abstract</b>: With the publication of a Decree that has established a List of the Italian old-growth forests, we have analyzed, using text mining software, the state of the art of Italian research in this field. We have analyzed 188 ISI and 72 non-indexed papers or reports. The analysis has identified 165 locations of which more than 50% are on pure beech or mixed beech and silver fir stands. The analysis was focused mainly on structural characteristics and bio-indicators. The current knowledge represents reliable support for the establishment of an Italian network of old-growth forests and this green infrastructure offers important opportunities for research and collaboration between research, natural resource management, and local, regional, and state administrations. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Structure, Biodiversity Indicators, Monitoring, Climate Change Impacts, Resilience, Closer To Nature Forest Management </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (2): 36-48 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4110-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R, Garbarino M, Lingua E, Lombardi F, Tognetti R Articoli Scientifici 2022-04-28 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Strategia Forestale Nazionale italiana e governo integrato degli incendi boschivi <p><b>Abstract</b>: Since February 2022, the National Forestry Strategy (NFS) for the forest sector and its supply chains is public. The NFS addresses in an innovative and science-based way key issues related to forest fire governance such as the integrated fire risk management, the convergence of forest, agro-pastoral and nature conservation policies with fire governance strategies, the regulatory update and the roadmap to open-access wildfire data. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Policy, Wildfire Risk Management, Climate Change, Sustainability, Rural Development </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (2): 31-35 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4093-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ascoli D, Ferlazzo S, Marchetti M, Motta R, Pompei E, Stefani A Commenti & Prospettive 2022-03-20 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Indagine sulla produzione vivaistica forestale pubblica in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: In the upcoming years, the challenge of the exponential growth in tree planting activities matching climate crisis, which requires the use of targeted and adapted plant material, calls for creating an updated framework of the Italian forest nursery sector, for both basic materials (BM) and for forest reproductive materials (FRM). The present paper aims at highlighting pros and cons of the public nursery system and, at the same time, characterizing the current organization and production capacity in quantitative and qualitative terms. Our effort was focused on recovering information, topic for the development of the sector, which has been gradually weakened in the last decades. The research was carried out in two steps: (a) analysis of the online available sources; (b) diagnostic analysis by questionnaire to the nursery sector managers. The specific objectives were: (i) describing the state of the art of the available MBs; (ii) qualifying and quantifying the seedlings production (active nurseries, management of nurseries in the regions, typology and types of FRM produced and species); (iii) understanding the real and potential users of BM and FRM; and (iv) assessing the usability of information related to the nursery chain. The picture at national scale is definitively fragmented from all points of view: availability of BM, usability of available information, production capacity of FRM, rationalization and innovation of growing systems, computerization. Although virtuous cases were found, the Italian forest nursery sector generally needs a profound revitalization to cope with the imminent increasing demand for target material. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Seedlings Production, Forest Reproductive Material, Basic Material, Public Forest Nurseries, Forest Nursery Stock Production </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (2): 18-30 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4083-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Martini S, Maltoni A, Monteverdi MC, De Dato G, Salbitano F, Marchetti M, Mariotti B Articoli Scientifici 2022-03-17 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Progetto didattico ambientale per la salvaguardia della biodiversità e la prevenzione degli incendi boschivi: “Giovani sentinelle della pineta costiera” <p><b>Abstract</b>: The vegetation of the coastal areas is closely linked to the back-dune habitat, generally occupied by coniferous forests of great naturalistic and landscape interest, where the floristic composition and vegetation are subject to deep transformations immediately after fire occurrence. School represents the ideal community for environmental and sustainability education projects aimed to raise the knowledge and awareness of the common cultural and natural heritage. This paper describes the work carried out by a third-year class of the Lower Secondary School of the I.C. “Q.O. Flacco” of Marconia (Matera, Italy) within the frame of the project “Young sentinels of the coastal pine forest”. The project aims to describe and safeguard the vegetation of the dune and back-dune habitat in the SIC area located in Marina di Pisticci, in order to prevent the occurrence of wildfires that can threaten the coastal pine forest. The results of this work can contribute to increase the knowledge of the local vegetation and to rise the awareness of new generations for the relevant role they should play in safeguarding the environment. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Environmental Education, Biodiversity, School Scouting Activities, Coastal Pine Forest, Fire Prevention </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (2): 12-17 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4061-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Agneta R, Greco M Articoli Scientifici 2022-03-06 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Recensioni: Investire nel bosco dà buoni risultati: da un’esperienza del passato un insegnamento per il presente <p><b>Abstract</b>: It is good that it remains a testimony of a job well done. This is useful for the younger generation and for those who face similar problems albeit in different times and contexts. For this reason the book on reforestation carried out in Calabria almost seventy years ago is important, not only for the numerous information it provides on the subject, but above all because it helps understanding that behind what we see today in the landscape of many areas of that region there are enlightened political choices, good science and technology, the hard work of many people; all in collaboration with nature. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Reforestation, Southern Italy, Soil conservation, Book review </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (1): 10-11 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0049-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Portoghesi L Recensioni 2022-02-06 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: Gestione forestale e biodiversità: un nuovo indicatore qualitativo per valutare la naturalità degli ambienti forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent years, the loss of biodiversity occurred worldwide has called for the creation of various indicators aimed to assess the health status of the environment. Due to the increase of forest areas throughout Europe, different ecological indicators for the assessment of naturalness and health of forest ecosystems are being theorized and modelled, with relevant implications both for planning current and future management of forest ecosystems and to control their evolution over time. In this study, a new indicator of the ecological naturalness of forest habitats is proposed with the aim of providing an intuitive and straightforward tool for the harmonization and optimization of sampling efforts in similar projects (such as those proposed by Forest Europe). To this end, a limited number of variables concerning deadwood, climate, fauna, forest typology, and biotic and abiotic stress of trees have been combined into an indicator which reflects the overall health status and naturalness of forest ecosystems. Future studies and the collaboration between different research groups are desirable in order to validate the theorethical indicator proposed here and test its effectiveness and ease-of-use in projects focused on assessing the naturalness of forest ecosystems. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forests, Biodiversity, Wildlife, Insects, Saproxylic Fauna, Deadwood </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (1): 1-9 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3933-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Casella Mariola G, Tagliaferri L Rapporti Tecnici 2022-01-10 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Piantagioni clonali di eucalitto fertirrigate con reflui urbani depurati (sistema semplificato SI-UNIBAS): una opportunità da considerare <p><b>Abstract</b>: The development of a “wood waste” supply chain using treated urban waste is proposed for fertirrigation of eucalypt clonal plantations. We used the simplified SI-UNIBAS urban waste water purification system, a modification of the conventional activated sludge system which allows for the production of water with variable loads of organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), thus adapting the treated water to the crop requirements. A prototype of this system already exists since more than a decade in the municipality of Ferrandina, near Matera (southern Italy), where the purified wastewater is used to fertirrigate olive trees in an extensive experimentation with excellent results. We hypothesized the use of the SI-UNIBAS system to fertirrigate plantations of fast-growing eucalyptus clones in order to evaluate the obtainable wood production and the surfaces to be planted in areas of central and southern Italy characterized by evergreen and deciduous oak forests. In summary, the development of the “wood waste” chain could result in: (i) a reduction of up to 50% in waste treatment costs and CO2 emissions, compared to the conventional activated sludge system; (ii) a high and constant wood production (8 million m3 per year) over a short time (8-15 years rotation) on limited surfaces (about 400.000 ha) to be used as timber and/or biomass for energy use; (iii) savings on the cost of irrigation water, fertilizers or organic matter for wood production, while maintaining the soil fertility; (iv) savings on the use of chemical fertilizers and therefore no CO2 emissions from their production; (v) a lower logging from national forests and/or imports from abroad; (vi) the possibility of managing parts of forests currently subject to logging in a more efficient way in terms of absorption and conservation of atmospheric CO2 and biodiversity conservation. However, before large-scale applications of the SI-UNIBAS system, pilot studies need to be implemented in sites with soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions typical of central and southern Italy. We concluded that the SI-UNIBAS system has the potential to be applied in large-scale projects at the national level. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Eucalyptus, Clone, Timber, Biomass, Fertigation, Urban Wastewater, Purification </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 85-92 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3802-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Mughini G, Masi S Articoli Scientifici 2021-10-27 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Corrigendum: In ricordo di Ezio Magini: una doverosa rettifica <p><b>Abstract</b>: We recognize in this note a mistake in the reconstruction of a tragic episode during the Second World War, reported in the article “Remembering a leading forest scientist: Ezio Magini” ( </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, Forest Genetics, Forest Tree Breeding, University of Florence, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 84 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0050-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Corrigendum 2021-10-21 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: SilvaCuore: un’App per monitorare lo stato di salute delle foreste italiane <p><b>Abstract</b>: Several forest dieback and mortality phenomena reported across the Italian Peninsula over the last years underline an enhanced forest vulnerability in response to climate extremes, mainly heat waves and dry spells. Hundreds or even thousands hectares of forests completely die out over few years, causing considerable negative impacts on ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and biodiversity. Thus, there is a compelling need to monitor these phenomena for understanding the future dynamics of forest stands: these crucial assumptions have led to SilvaCuore’s development, the first App designed in Italy to report the forests health status. The support of an active users’ community can not only allow researchers to survey declining forest sites, but also to better plan research activities and management measures. Silvacuore is an App designed with the willingness to strenghten the link between the citizens and the scientific community, contributing to the development of a valuable scientific database, available on a website and linked to the App. Through a user-friendly interface, the App leads the users throughout a simplified reporting procedure. SilvaCuore may therefore be perceived by a dual aspect: a resource for the scientific community and a unique opportunity for citizens to play an active role in research activities. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Active Citizenship, Census, Climate Change, Forest Disturbance, Mediterranean Forests, Scientific Database </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 74-78 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3993-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Castellaneta M, Borghetti M, Colangelo M, Lapolla A, Rita A, Ripullone F Rapporti di Progetto 2021-10-14 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: Digitalizzazione e tracciabilità: i principali risultati del Living Lab sulla filiera legno-energia in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: Italy is the first importer of wood-energy biomass worldwide, with tons of timber illegally imported every year and significant negative socio-economic and environmental consequences. A Living Lab was established involving 25 among stakeholders and key informants of the wood-energy supply chain in order to foster a participatory and open assessment of the impact of digital technology on traceability. A Socio-Cyber-Physical System (SCPS) approach was adopted to map entities, activities and relationships at stake in the wood-energy sector, aimed to analyse impacts of the introduction of digital technologies. Participatory activities allowed to identify both positive and negative impacts of the digitalisation process in the wood-energy sector. What emerged from the analysis is that, to orient digitalisation towards a real path to sustainability in the Italian wood-energy sector, a holistic approach taking into account all the social, geographical and environmental elements at stake is strongly needed. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Digitalisation, Traceability, Wood Energy, Living Lab, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 79-83 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3982-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ciliberti S, Brunori A, Mariano E, Frascarelli A Rapporti di Progetto 2021-10-14 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: In ricordo di Klaus Hellrigl <p><b>Abstract</b>: Dr. Klausjörg Hellrigl (1935-2021) passed away few weeks ago. For decades Dr. Hellrigl was a reference for Italian and foreign entomologists. Among his many articles and investigations, Dr. Hellrigl was probably best known for his studies on xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae and Cerambycidae). Here, two former pupils of Dr. Hellrigl remember his life and scientific works. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Entomology, Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 72-73 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0051-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Minerbi S, Battisti A Editoriali 2021-10-13 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: La filiera corta del legno: un’opportunità per la bio-economia forestale in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: The motivations for the National Research Project on the Short Wood Supply Chain stem from the recognition of the great importance of the wood-based bio-economy for the future carbon-free society. In addition to the essential ecological benefits provided by forests, natural wood resources are expected to play a significant role due to the increasing wood demand for structural and non-structural uses. However, in Italy most industrial wood products are made from imported timber, which results in poor attention to local forestry, loss of traditional silvicultural know-how and reduced forest employment in most mountain areas. The project specifically aims: (i) to assess the feasability and sustainability of wood short supply chains; (ii) to promote new models of environmental certification and energy efficiency analysis; (iii) to create innovative products for bio-building (CrossLam, laminated timber, wood panels) using wood assortments from sustainable forest management in Italy; (iv) to characterise the functionality of wood products (with attention paid to architectural issues), predict wood degradation rate and assess conservation methods. Attention is specifically devoted to most common forest species in Italy, such as beech, pines, chestnut, deciduous oaks and poplar and to test thermal and surface treatments with natural substances and nano-materials. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Sustainable Forestry, Forest Circular Bio-Economy, Wood Technology and Engineering, Wood Industry and Construction </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 64-71 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0052-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Scarascia Mugnozza G, Romagnoli M, Fragiacomo M, Piazza M, Lasserre B, Brunetti M, Zanuttini R, Fioravanti M, Marchetti M, Todaro L, Togni M, Ferrante T, Maesano M, Nocetti M, De Dato GB, Sciomenta M, Villani T Rapporti di Progetto 2021-08-26 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rassegne: Afforestazione e fissazione della CO2 atmosferica: qualche cifra indicativa dalla ricerca scientifica <p><b>Abstract</b>: Afforestation is often proposed as one of the most effective nature-based solutions to sequester carbon from the atmosphere, so mitigating the impending climate crisis. As a result, we have witnessed over the last few years a flourishing of projects aimed at planting new forests, particularly in periurban and agricultural settings, without a preliminary scientific discussion of their expected impact. In this contribution, we have therefore tried to summarize the evidence available for Italian settings, so as to define the range of sequestration rates that can be realistically expected. Moreover, we have tried to highlight some of the issues (age effects, single tree vs. stand perspective) that should be taken into account in the debate in order to harmonize results and approaches. Based on available evidence, under mesic conditions and with adequate cures at and after planting, we could realistically expect over the first decades a Net Ecosystem Production of about 3.5 t C ha-1 yr-1, in good agreement with results from other European deciduous tree plantations. Higher rates are definitely possible with fast-growing species (e.g., poplar, eucalypt) and intensive management, not always compatible with the environmental aims of such projects. In conclusion, afforestation can yield important results (also considering the other ecosystem services provided, particularly important in peri-urban and agricultural settings), although far from the C sequestration provided by the protection and sustainable management of existing forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Afforestation, Carbon Sequestration, NEP, Italy, Review </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 60-63 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3928-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Magnani F, Raddi S Rassegne 2021-07-20 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: In Italia si va contro la crescita verde? Tutto il contrario! <p><b>Abstract</b>: A letter published in Nature presents in a misleading way the content of the IV Report on the State of Natural Capital in Italy and makes groundless criticism on the national forest strategy. We would like to refute these assertions here, bringing back to reality the contents of the Report, which goes, on the opposite, in the direction of green growth, environmental protection and biodiversity conservation. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  National Forest Strategy, State of the Natural Capital, Green Growth, Environmental Protection, Biodiversity Conservation </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 58-59 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0053-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Scarascia Mugnozza G Editoriali 2021-07-17 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Ondate di siccità e calore, spunti per una selvicoltura adattativa <p><b>Abstract</b>: We propose some ideas for an adaptive silviculture in the Mediterranean biogeographic region that could assist in shaping forests which are less vulnerable to extreme climatic events, such as those drought and heat waves that are expected to be more intense and frequent in the future. We discuss about silvicultural approaches that would aim to: regulate competition and density-dependent effects; enhance functional diversity; increase the complexity of forest communities. These approaches are especially advisable in the Mediterranean region, which is a hotspot for climate change and where forests have been exploited for many centuries and are only recently taking advantage of a recovery phase. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest, Tree, Drought, Decline, Management, Functional Diversity, Mediterranean </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 49-57 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0054-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M, Colangelo M, Ripullone F, Rita A Commenti & Prospettive 2021-07-09 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: La ricerca del benessere attraverso la permanenza in ambienti naturali: uno studio di caso in epoca Covid-19 <p><b>Abstract</b>: Since March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has changed lifestyles in relation with the external environment, in particular nature. The permanence in natural environments, the relationship with the outside and with the green that surrounds us reveal, in general, important elements of personal and collective well-being, both during the usual daily life but also and above all in the current pandemic crisis, that has dramatically changed everyone’s life habits and has disrupted interpersonal relationships and the relationship with the outdoor world, often observed from a window. As part of the CNR FOE-Nutrage project “Nutrizione, Alimentazione e Invecchiamento attivo”, subtask 3.6.4 “Well-being search in natural environments”, a case study was conducted with the aim of investigating, through desk analysis and field surveys, the relationship between the environment and well-being on a sample of people over 65 years of age - considered at high risk during the current COVID-19 pandemic - residing mainly in Calabria (southern Italy) and Lombardia (northern Italy). The overall vision integrated good lifestyles and permanence in natural environments with the perspective of disease prevention and maintenance of the psycho-physical health. Results showed that the sample interviewed, despite having changed during the lockdown of March-April 2020 the type of environment frequented and reduced the time spent outside, did not give up walking, attending outdoor spaces and taking care of the house greenery (plants and terraces) for their psycho-physical well-being. The study is part of a vision extensively investigated by the scientific literature on the influence of environmental factors on the psycho-physical well-being of people, and, in particular, on the importance of ecosystem services and of the “Green-care”. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Well-being, Environment, Active-aging, Ecosystem Services, Green Care, Covid-19 </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 41-48 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3878-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Vivona S, Romeo N, Sdao P, Veltri A Articoli Scientifici 2021-07-04 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Preoccupazioni per la foresta boreale in Europa <p><b>Abstract</b>: This note reports some concerns about the conservation of the boreal forest in Europe. In the Fennoscandia, there has been a significant increase in forest clearcutting in recent years, likely affecting even the remnants of natural forest. In Sweden, due to the long-term application of plantation forestry, a small fraction of the original boreal forest remains: its further fragmentation may jeopardize forest biodiversity and forest’s ability to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Outside protected areas, clearcutting followed by soil scarification, plantation, forest vegetation management, etc. grants financial profitability and large volumes of wood products, but not the conservation of biodiversity. Negative effects might be also expected on the ecosystem carbon balance due to large carbon-dioxide emissions for long years after clearcutting. It is good that these issues are being brought to the forefront of the environmental and scientific debate. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Sweden, Forestry, Wood Harvesting, Clearcutting, Biodiversity </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (3): 38-40 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0055-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Commenti & Prospettive 2021-06-14 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Prelievi forestali in Europa: un sano dibattito scientifico <p><b>Abstract</b>: Is forest harvesting increasing in Europe? There is scientific debate about methodological approach and data regarding clearcut increment in Europe but, besides the discussion, there is a general agreement about the need to collect reliable scientifically robust remote sensing data for sound forest policy-making. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Harvesting, Remote Sensing, Global Forest Change </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (3): 35-37 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3892-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ascoli D, Chirici G, Francini S, Marchetti M, Motta R, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2021-06-10 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Telerilevamento e procedure automatiche: validi strumenti di supporto al monitoraggio delle utilizzazioni forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: Forests produce a wide range of ecosystem services, including the traditional wood production. Sustainable forest management approaches are used to locally calibrate wood harvesting on the basis of local conditions and should not adversely affect other ecosystem services. To assess forest harvesting sustainability and impacts it is essential to know their spatial distribution. At the present date accurate statistics on wood harvesting are not available in Italy. In this context, remote sensing and automatic mapping algorithms constitute an important tool for providing spatially explicit information to quantify wood harvesting and thus supporting more sustainable forest management approaches. In this work we tested an automatic mapping algorithm (3I3D) using multitemporal Sentinel-2 imagery to produce a map of forest disturbance produced by different types of wood harvesting in the province of Arezzo for the year 2018. Thanks to a photo-interpretation work of high resolution PlanetScope imagery and field data collected by the Carabinieri Forestali, we were able to calculate commission (2%) and omission (18%) errors of the automatic 3I3D map. The results of this work motivate the introduction of remote sensing tools as a support for monitoring and quantification of forest wood harvesting. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Remote Sensing, Sentinel-2, Forest Disturbance, Harvest, PlanetScope </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (3): 27-34 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3835-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Francini S, D’Amico G, Mencucci M, Seri G, Gravano E, Chirici G Articoli Scientifici 2021-05-07 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: La percezione del bosco negli studenti di Scienze Forestali: un’indagine presso l’Università degli Studi di Firenze <p><b>Abstract</b>: The growing interest in the positive effects of the forest on the individual and social sphere and in the cultural and social development of local realities has motivated this survey to investigate the preferences of recreational activities carried out in the forest. The study was aimed to understand the effect of the forest on the psychological conditions of its users, and to evaluate the value attributed to the ecosystem services of the forest by the users themselves. The survey focused on the perception of the forest of the students of the degree courses in Forestry and Environmental Sciences of the University of Florence. The survey population was constituted by 283 students, 219 enrolled in the three-year degree course and 64 in the master’s course; 36% of the population, 102 students, answered a questionnaire specially created for this study. The main frequentation of the forest for free leisure activities has defined psychological well-being through the sensation of “serenity”, as the one most perceived, and sensations of “energy”, “euphoria”, “quiet”, “relief” and “lucidity”. A high value was attributed to the ecosystem services of the forest, such as “local climate regulation” and “air quality regulation”, by demonstrating the weight of the background of university studies. The survey is proposed as a pilot study for the analysis of psychological well-being and the recreational services of the forest useful to numerous professionals connected to it. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Sciences, Recreational Activities In Forest, Psychological Well-being, Ecosystem Services, Semantic Differential </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (2): 22-26 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3816-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Chirici D, Sacchelli S, Salbitano F, Travaglini D, Marchi E, Cocozza C Comunicazioni Brevi 2021-03-27 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: L’impatto della ricerca scientifica, fra incerte previsioni e inaspettate conseguenze <p><b>Abstract</b>: We highlight, with the support of a couple of scientific stories, the difficulty of forecasting the impact of scientific research when you are struggling with writing a scientific project. However, sooner or later applications and positive impacts might come by themselves, if high-quality projects and scientists are appointed. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Science, Projects, Applications, Dissemination </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 20-21 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0056-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2021-02-02 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Recensioni: I disastri e la loro relazione con le foreste. Tre casi studio a supporto della gestione degli eventi estremi <p><b>Abstract</b>: This book review is a reworked and translated version of the synthesis from the report “Forest-related disasters - Three case studies and lessons for management of extreme events” by H. van Hensbergen and J. Cedergren, published by the Food And Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The volume describes the complex relationship between disasters and forests, defining the multiple roles that trees play during environmental disasters and how much this affects human activities. After a brief general introduction, the description continues through the analysis of three catastrophic events that occurred since the beginning of this century. The chronicle and the analysis of repercussions on forests and population of the storm Gudrun (Sweden, 2005), the Tohoku tsunami (Japan, 2011) and the firestorm in central Chile (Chile, 2017) are reported. From the synthesis of the three experiences, some lessons of management of extreme events are drawn, reported as a strategic suggestion to face, from a forestry point of view, the planning and reaction to catastrophic emergencies involving forests and trees. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forests, Disaster, Catastrophe, Emergency, Fire, Storm, Tsunami </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 15-19 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3764-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Chiavetta U Recensioni 2021-01-27 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Xylosandrus compactus, un nuovo parassita forestale invade l’Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: The black twig borer Xylosandrus compactus, an ambrosia beetle native to Asia, was recorded for the first time in Europe in 2011 in central Italy. This paper reports the progressive dispersal of this invasive species in many Italian regions (Campania 2011, Tuscany and Liguria 2012, Lombardy 2015, Lazio and Sicily 2016, Emilia Romagna 2018, Veneto 2019) and other European countries (France 2015, Spain and Greece 2019). The main features of the biology and ecology are reported, and the infestation symptoms and the produced damages are descripted, as well. An updated list of the potential host-plants is also provided. Finally, protocols for the pest control are suggested. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Invasive Species, Ambrosia Beetle, Asian Pest </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 8-14 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3711-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Faccoli M Articoli Scientifici 2021-01-21 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Piano Nazionale di Ripresa e Resilienza Next Generation EU: un’occasione persa per le foreste italiane <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Plan approved by the Council of Ministers of Italy on Jan 12, 2021 in Mission 2. “Green revolution and ecological transition”, Project Line 2.4 “Territory and water resource protection”, includes a specific intervention called “Forests and Protection” designated to mitigate the risks associated with hydrogeological instability, which does not provide for specific financial resources and refers to the EAFRD fund of the next programming period. In light of the actual hydrogeological emergencies of the country and the periodic announcements following each calamitous event, the choice made is incomprehensible. Not even the recent disaster that struck the forests in north-eastern Italy following the Vaia windstorm was an adequate warning to set aside for forests a two-hundredth of the funds in the PNRR. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  National Recovery and Resilience Plan, Next Generation EU, Forests, Hydrogeological Disruption, Sustainable Forest Management </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 5-7 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3751-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Romano R Commenti & Prospettive 2021-01-18 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Neanche VAIA resiste all’insostenibile leggerezza delle statistiche forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: Recently published data on Italian forest removals from FAO and EUROSTAT are still ridden with inaccuracies and underestimation. In this work we show how and why the Italian forestry data collection system is in itself unreliable. This represents a major obstacle for designing sector policies, ensuring the flow of forest ecosystem services from the forest to the society, and defining a role for forests, forestry and wood consistent with the European Green Deal and in the NextGenerationEU Recovery and Resilience Facility. A more reliable strategy for data collection is urgently required. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Inventory, Forest Statistics, Data Sources, Forest Harvesting, Eurostat </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 1-4 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3733-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Pettenella D, Marchetti M, Motta R, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2021-01-09 Copyright (c) 2023, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved