Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale Ultimi lavori pubblicati Copyright (c) 2004-2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved it PHP 7.3.1 60 Forest@ Web Site Commenti & Prospettive: Un nuovo paradigma per la gestione forestale sostenibile: la selvicoltura “più” prossima alla natura <p><b>Abstract</b>: Closer-to-Nature Forest Management is a new concept proposed both in the EU Forest Strategy for 2030 and in the EU Biodiversity strategy for 2030. Closer-to-Nature Forest Management aims to improve the conservation values and climate resilience of multifunctional, managed forests in Europe. We present the concept based on a set of seven guiding principles and discuss main problems and opportunities of its application at continental scale and in Italy. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, Forest Management, Biodiversity, European Union, Strategy, Ecosystem Services </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (3): 52-62 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4124-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R, Larsen JB Commenti & Prospettive 2022-05-22 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Prendersi cura dei boschi italiani, se ne parla al prossimo congresso SISEF <p><b>Abstract</b>: Italian forests have expanded considerably in recent decades and accumulated much woody biomass. It opens up new horizons in silviculture and forest management. Recently, we heard some calls for an increase in harvests in Italian forests. However, there are some cautions to be considered. In many cases (large areas in the centre-south of the Italian peninsula, for example), Italian forests start from conditions in which the woody biomass stock was very low due to over-exploitation, which lasted many centuries. This makes the path towards ecosystem functionality and safety long and uncertain. The climate crisis also advises against considering the current dynamics of growth and carbon uptake as granted. We recognize that the Italian furniture industry needs wood and that currently almost 80% of this wood is imported from abroad, involving environmental and ethical issues. However, for various reasons (composition, structure, cultivation methods, etc.), the type of wood asked for by furniture manufacturers is scarcely present in Italian forests, and it is unlikely that this will change in the next few years. Therefore, the forecasted increase in harvesting to replace the wood that industries import today from abroad is by no means sure it will be effective. In general, it is necessary to avoid the most simple solutions, which in Italy are often coppice cutting and coppice wood for energy purposes. The recovery from a condition of past degradation and the accumulation of biomass in Italian forests is an opportunity and opens up a vast horizon for innovative forest management and silviculture. Provided we know how to orient ourselves within this horizon and implement a true culture and care of the forest (extensive closeR-to-nature silviculture towards continuity in forest cover, above all), in full respect of the “rights” of the forest, the safeguarding of which guarantees the major benefits that the forest provides to the society. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Italy, Forest, Wood, Harvest, Coppice, High-forest, Silviculture </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (3): 49-51 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0048-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2022-05-17 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: La ricerca italiana ed il ruolo della comunità scientifica nella realizzazione dell’Albo nazionale delle “Foreste vetuste” <p><b>Abstract</b>: With the publication of a Decree that has established a List of the Italian old-growth forests, we have analyzed, using text mining software, the state of the art of Italian research in this field. We have analyzed 188 ISI and 72 non-indexed papers or reports. The analysis has identified 165 locations of which more than 50% are on pure beech or mixed beech and silver fir stands. The analysis was focused mainly on structural characteristics and bio-indicators. The current knowledge represents reliable support for the establishment of an Italian network of old-growth forests and this green infrastructure offers important opportunities for research and collaboration between research, natural resource management, and local, regional, and state administrations. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Structure, Biodiversity Indicators, Monitoring, Climate Change Impacts, Resilience, Closer To Nature Forest Management </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (2): 36-48 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4110-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R, Garbarino M, Lingua E, Lombardi F, Tognetti R Articoli Scientifici 2022-04-28 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Strategia Forestale Nazionale italiana e governo integrato degli incendi boschivi <p><b>Abstract</b>: Since February 2022, the National Forestry Strategy (NFS) for the forest sector and its supply chains is public. The NFS addresses in an innovative and science-based way key issues related to forest fire governance such as the integrated fire risk management, the convergence of forest, agro-pastoral and nature conservation policies with fire governance strategies, the regulatory update and the roadmap to open-access wildfire data. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Policy, Wildfire Risk Management, Climate Change, Sustainability, Rural Development </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (2): 31-35 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4093-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ascoli D, Ferlazzo S, Marchetti M, Motta R, Pompei E, Stefani A Commenti & Prospettive 2022-03-20 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Indagine sulla produzione vivaistica forestale pubblica in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: In the upcoming years, the challenge of the exponential growth in tree planting activities matching climate crisis, which requires the use of targeted and adapted plant material, calls for creating an updated framework of the Italian forest nursery sector, for both basic materials (BM) and for forest reproductive materials (FRM). The present paper aims at highlighting pros and cons of the public nursery system and, at the same time, characterizing the current organization and production capacity in quantitative and qualitative terms. Our effort was focused on recovering information, topic for the development of the sector, which has been gradually weakened in the last decades. The research was carried out in two steps: (a) analysis of the online available sources; (b) diagnostic analysis by questionnaire to the nursery sector managers. The specific objectives were: (i) describing the state of the art of the available MBs; (ii) qualifying and quantifying the seedlings production (active nurseries, management of nurseries in the regions, typology and types of FRM produced and species); (iii) understanding the real and potential users of BM and FRM; and (iv) assessing the usability of information related to the nursery chain. The picture at national scale is definitively fragmented from all points of view: availability of BM, usability of available information, production capacity of FRM, rationalization and innovation of growing systems, computerization. Although virtuous cases were found, the Italian forest nursery sector generally needs a profound revitalization to cope with the imminent increasing demand for target material. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Seedlings Production, Forest Reproductive Material, Basic Material, Public Forest Nurseries, Forest Nursery Stock Production </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (2): 18-30 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4083-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Martini S, Maltoni A, Monteverdi MC, De Dato G, Salbitano F, Marchetti M, Mariotti B Articoli Scientifici 2022-03-17 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Progetto didattico ambientale per la salvaguardia della biodiversità e la prevenzione degli incendi boschivi: “Giovani sentinelle della pineta costiera” <p><b>Abstract</b>: The vegetation of the coastal areas is closely linked to the back-dune habitat, generally occupied by coniferous forests of great naturalistic and landscape interest, where the floristic composition and vegetation are subject to deep transformations immediately after fire occurrence. School represents the ideal community for environmental and sustainability education projects aimed to raise the knowledge and awareness of the common cultural and natural heritage. This paper describes the work carried out by a third-year class of the Lower Secondary School of the I.C. “Q.O. Flacco” of Marconia (Matera, Italy) within the frame of the project “Young sentinels of the coastal pine forest”. The project aims to describe and safeguard the vegetation of the dune and back-dune habitat in the SIC area located in Marina di Pisticci, in order to prevent the occurrence of wildfires that can threaten the coastal pine forest. The results of this work can contribute to increase the knowledge of the local vegetation and to rise the awareness of new generations for the relevant role they should play in safeguarding the environment. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Environmental Education, Biodiversity, School Scouting Activities, Coastal Pine Forest, Fire Prevention </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (2): 12-17 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor4061-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Agneta R, Greco M Articoli Scientifici 2022-03-06 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Recensioni: Investire nel bosco dà buoni risultati: da un’esperienza del passato un insegnamento per il presente <p><b>Abstract</b>: It is good that it remains a testimony of a job well done. This is useful for the younger generation and for those who face similar problems albeit in different times and contexts. For this reason the book on reforestation carried out in Calabria almost seventy years ago is important, not only for the numerous information it provides on the subject, but above all because it helps understanding that behind what we see today in the landscape of many areas of that region there are enlightened political choices, good science and technology, the hard work of many people; all in collaboration with nature. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Reforestation, Southern Italy, Soil conservation, Book review </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (1): 10-11 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0049-019<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Portoghesi L Recensioni 2022-02-06 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: Gestione forestale e biodiversità: un nuovo indicatore qualitativo per valutare la naturalità degli ambienti forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent years, the loss of biodiversity occurred worldwide has called for the creation of various indicators aimed to assess the health status of the environment. Due to the increase of forest areas throughout Europe, different ecological indicators for the assessment of naturalness and health of forest ecosystems are being theorized and modelled, with relevant implications both for planning current and future management of forest ecosystems and to control their evolution over time. In this study, a new indicator of the ecological naturalness of forest habitats is proposed with the aim of providing an intuitive and straightforward tool for the harmonization and optimization of sampling efforts in similar projects (such as those proposed by Forest Europe). To this end, a limited number of variables concerning deadwood, climate, fauna, forest typology, and biotic and abiotic stress of trees have been combined into an indicator which reflects the overall health status and naturalness of forest ecosystems. Future studies and the collaboration between different research groups are desirable in order to validate the theorethical indicator proposed here and test its effectiveness and ease-of-use in projects focused on assessing the naturalness of forest ecosystems. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forests, Biodiversity, Wildlife, Insects, Saproxylic Fauna, Deadwood </p><p><i>Forest@ 19 (1): 1-9 (2022) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3933-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Casella Mariola G, Tagliaferri L Rapporti Tecnici 2022-01-10 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Piantagioni clonali di eucalitto fertirrigate con reflui urbani depurati (sistema semplificato SI-UNIBAS): una opportunità da considerare <p><b>Abstract</b>: The development of a “wood waste” supply chain using treated urban waste is proposed for fertirrigation of eucalypt clonal plantations. We used the simplified SI-UNIBAS urban waste water purification system, a modification of the conventional activated sludge system which allows for the production of water with variable loads of organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), thus adapting the treated water to the crop requirements. A prototype of this system already exists since more than a decade in the municipality of Ferrandina, near Matera (southern Italy), where the purified wastewater is used to fertirrigate olive trees in an extensive experimentation with excellent results. We hypothesized the use of the SI-UNIBAS system to fertirrigate plantations of fast-growing eucalyptus clones in order to evaluate the obtainable wood production and the surfaces to be planted in areas of central and southern Italy characterized by evergreen and deciduous oak forests. In summary, the development of the “wood waste” chain could result in: (i) a reduction of up to 50% in waste treatment costs and CO2 emissions, compared to the conventional activated sludge system; (ii) a high and constant wood production (8 million m3 per year) over a short time (8-15 years rotation) on limited surfaces (about 400.000 ha) to be used as timber and/or biomass for energy use; (iii) savings on the cost of irrigation water, fertilizers or organic matter for wood production, while maintaining the soil fertility; (iv) savings on the use of chemical fertilizers and therefore no CO2 emissions from their production; (v) a lower logging from national forests and/or imports from abroad; (vi) the possibility of managing parts of forests currently subject to logging in a more efficient way in terms of absorption and conservation of atmospheric CO2 and biodiversity conservation. However, before large-scale applications of the SI-UNIBAS system, pilot studies need to be implemented in sites with soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions typical of central and southern Italy. We concluded that the SI-UNIBAS system has the potential to be applied in large-scale projects at the national level. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Eucalyptus, Clone, Timber, Biomass, Fertigation, Urban Wastewater, Purification </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 85-92 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3802-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Mughini G, Masi S Articoli Scientifici 2021-10-27 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Corrigendum: In ricordo di Ezio Magini: una doverosa rettifica <p><b>Abstract</b>: We recognize in this note a mistake in the reconstruction of a tragic episode during the Second World War, reported in the article “Remembering a leading forest scientist: Ezio Magini” ( </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, Forest Genetics, Forest Tree Breeding, University of Florence, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 84 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0050-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Corrigendum 2021-10-21 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: SilvaCuore: un’App per monitorare lo stato di salute delle foreste italiane <p><b>Abstract</b>: Several forest dieback and mortality phenomena reported across the Italian Peninsula over the last years underline an enhanced forest vulnerability in response to climate extremes, mainly heat waves and dry spells. Hundreds or even thousands hectares of forests completely die out over few years, causing considerable negative impacts on ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and biodiversity. Thus, there is a compelling need to monitor these phenomena for understanding the future dynamics of forest stands: these crucial assumptions have led to SilvaCuore’s development, the first App designed in Italy to report the forests health status. The support of an active users’ community can not only allow researchers to survey declining forest sites, but also to better plan research activities and management measures. Silvacuore is an App designed with the willingness to strenghten the link between the citizens and the scientific community, contributing to the development of a valuable scientific database, available on a website and linked to the App. Through a user-friendly interface, the App leads the users throughout a simplified reporting procedure. SilvaCuore may therefore be perceived by a dual aspect: a resource for the scientific community and a unique opportunity for citizens to play an active role in research activities. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Active Citizenship, Census, Climate Change, Forest Disturbance, Mediterranean Forests, Scientific Database </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 74-78 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3993-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Castellaneta M, Borghetti M, Colangelo M, Lapolla A, Rita A, Ripullone F Rapporti di Progetto 2021-10-14 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: Digitalizzazione e tracciabilità: i principali risultati del Living Lab sulla filiera legno-energia in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: Italy is the first importer of wood-energy biomass worldwide, with tons of timber illegally imported every year and significant negative socio-economic and environmental consequences. A Living Lab was established involving 25 among stakeholders and key informants of the wood-energy supply chain in order to foster a participatory and open assessment of the impact of digital technology on traceability. A Socio-Cyber-Physical System (SCPS) approach was adopted to map entities, activities and relationships at stake in the wood-energy sector, aimed to analyse impacts of the introduction of digital technologies. Participatory activities allowed to identify both positive and negative impacts of the digitalisation process in the wood-energy sector. What emerged from the analysis is that, to orient digitalisation towards a real path to sustainability in the Italian wood-energy sector, a holistic approach taking into account all the social, geographical and environmental elements at stake is strongly needed. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Digitalisation, Traceability, Wood Energy, Living Lab, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 79-83 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3982-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ciliberti S, Brunori A, Mariano E, Frascarelli A Rapporti di Progetto 2021-10-14 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: In ricordo di Klaus Hellrigl <p><b>Abstract</b>: Dr. Klausjörg Hellrigl (1935-2021) passed away few weeks ago. For decades Dr. Hellrigl was a reference for Italian and foreign entomologists. Among his many articles and investigations, Dr. Hellrigl was probably best known for his studies on xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae and Cerambycidae). Here, two former pupils of Dr. Hellrigl remember his life and scientific works. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Entomology, Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (5): 72-73 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0051-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Minerbi S, Battisti A Editoriali 2021-10-13 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: La filiera corta del legno: un’opportunità per la bio-economia forestale in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: The motivations for the National Research Project on the Short Wood Supply Chain stem from the recognition of the great importance of the wood-based bio-economy for the future carbon-free society. In addition to the essential ecological benefits provided by forests, natural wood resources are expected to play a significant role due to the increasing wood demand for structural and non-structural uses. However, in Italy most industrial wood products are made from imported timber, which results in poor attention to local forestry, loss of traditional silvicultural know-how and reduced forest employment in most mountain areas. The project specifically aims: (i) to assess the feasability and sustainability of wood short supply chains; (ii) to promote new models of environmental certification and energy efficiency analysis; (iii) to create innovative products for bio-building (CrossLam, laminated timber, wood panels) using wood assortments from sustainable forest management in Italy; (iv) to characterise the functionality of wood products (with attention paid to architectural issues), predict wood degradation rate and assess conservation methods. Attention is specifically devoted to most common forest species in Italy, such as beech, pines, chestnut, deciduous oaks and poplar and to test thermal and surface treatments with natural substances and nano-materials. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Sustainable Forestry, Forest Circular Bio-Economy, Wood Technology and Engineering, Wood Industry and Construction </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 64-71 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0052-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Scarascia Mugnozza G, Romagnoli M, Fragiacomo M, Piazza M, Lasserre B, Brunetti M, Zanuttini R, Fioravanti M, Marchetti M, Todaro L, Togni M, Ferrante T, Maesano M, Nocetti M, De Dato GB, Sciomenta M, Villani T Rapporti di Progetto 2021-08-26 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rassegne: Afforestazione e fissazione della CO2 atmosferica: qualche cifra indicativa dalla ricerca scientifica <p><b>Abstract</b>: Afforestation is often proposed as one of the most effective nature-based solutions to sequester carbon from the atmosphere, so mitigating the impending climate crisis. As a result, we have witnessed over the last few years a flourishing of projects aimed at planting new forests, particularly in periurban and agricultural settings, without a preliminary scientific discussion of their expected impact. In this contribution, we have therefore tried to summarize the evidence available for Italian settings, so as to define the range of sequestration rates that can be realistically expected. Moreover, we have tried to highlight some of the issues (age effects, single tree vs. stand perspective) that should be taken into account in the debate in order to harmonize results and approaches. Based on available evidence, under mesic conditions and with adequate cures at and after planting, we could realistically expect over the first decades a Net Ecosystem Production of about 3.5 t C ha-1 yr-1, in good agreement with results from other European deciduous tree plantations. Higher rates are definitely possible with fast-growing species (e.g., poplar, eucalypt) and intensive management, not always compatible with the environmental aims of such projects. In conclusion, afforestation can yield important results (also considering the other ecosystem services provided, particularly important in peri-urban and agricultural settings), although far from the C sequestration provided by the protection and sustainable management of existing forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Afforestation, Carbon Sequestration, NEP, Italy, Review </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 60-63 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3928-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Magnani F, Raddi S Rassegne 2021-07-20 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: In Italia si va contro la crescita verde? Tutto il contrario! <p><b>Abstract</b>: A letter published in Nature presents in a misleading way the content of the IV Report on the State of Natural Capital in Italy and makes groundless criticism on the national forest strategy. We would like to refute these assertions here, bringing back to reality the contents of the Report, which goes, on the opposite, in the direction of green growth, environmental protection and biodiversity conservation. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  National Forest Strategy, State of the Natural Capital, Green Growth, Environmental Protection, Biodiversity Conservation </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 58-59 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0053-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Scarascia Mugnozza G Editoriali 2021-07-17 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Ondate di siccità e calore, spunti per una selvicoltura adattativa <p><b>Abstract</b>: We propose some ideas for an adaptive silviculture in the Mediterranean biogeographic region that could assist in shaping forests which are less vulnerable to extreme climatic events, such as those drought and heat waves that are expected to be more intense and frequent in the future. We discuss about silvicultural approaches that would aim to: regulate competition and density-dependent effects; enhance functional diversity; increase the complexity of forest communities. These approaches are especially advisable in the Mediterranean region, which is a hotspot for climate change and where forests have been exploited for many centuries and are only recently taking advantage of a recovery phase. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest, Tree, Drought, Decline, Management, Functional Diversity, Mediterranean </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 49-57 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0054-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M, Colangelo M, Ripullone F, Rita A Commenti & Prospettive 2021-07-09 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: La ricerca del benessere attraverso la permanenza in ambienti naturali: uno studio di caso in epoca Covid-19 <p><b>Abstract</b>: Since March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has changed lifestyles in relation with the external environment, in particular nature. The permanence in natural environments, the relationship with the outside and with the green that surrounds us reveal, in general, important elements of personal and collective well-being, both during the usual daily life but also and above all in the current pandemic crisis, that has dramatically changed everyone’s life habits and has disrupted interpersonal relationships and the relationship with the outdoor world, often observed from a window. As part of the CNR FOE-Nutrage project “Nutrizione, Alimentazione e Invecchiamento attivo”, subtask 3.6.4 “Well-being search in natural environments”, a case study was conducted with the aim of investigating, through desk analysis and field surveys, the relationship between the environment and well-being on a sample of people over 65 years of age - considered at high risk during the current COVID-19 pandemic - residing mainly in Calabria (southern Italy) and Lombardia (northern Italy). The overall vision integrated good lifestyles and permanence in natural environments with the perspective of disease prevention and maintenance of the psycho-physical health. Results showed that the sample interviewed, despite having changed during the lockdown of March-April 2020 the type of environment frequented and reduced the time spent outside, did not give up walking, attending outdoor spaces and taking care of the house greenery (plants and terraces) for their psycho-physical well-being. The study is part of a vision extensively investigated by the scientific literature on the influence of environmental factors on the psycho-physical well-being of people, and, in particular, on the importance of ecosystem services and of the “Green-care”. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Well-being, Environment, Active-aging, Ecosystem Services, Green Care, Covid-19 </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (4): 41-48 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3878-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Vivona S, Romeo N, Sdao P, Veltri A Articoli Scientifici 2021-07-04 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Preoccupazioni per la foresta boreale in Europa <p><b>Abstract</b>: This note reports some concerns about the conservation of the boreal forest in Europe. In the Fennoscandia, there has been a significant increase in forest clearcutting in recent years, likely affecting even the remnants of natural forest. In Sweden, due to the long-term application of plantation forestry, a small fraction of the original boreal forest remains: its further fragmentation may jeopardize forest biodiversity and forest’s ability to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Outside protected areas, clearcutting followed by soil scarification, plantation, forest vegetation management, etc. grants financial profitability and large volumes of wood products, but not the conservation of biodiversity. Negative effects might be also expected on the ecosystem carbon balance due to large carbon-dioxide emissions for long years after clearcutting. It is good that these issues are being brought to the forefront of the environmental and scientific debate. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Sweden, Forestry, Wood Harvesting, Clearcutting, Biodiversity </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (3): 38-40 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0055-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Commenti & Prospettive 2021-06-14 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Prelievi forestali in Europa: un sano dibattito scientifico <p><b>Abstract</b>: Is forest harvesting increasing in Europe? There is scientific debate about methodological approach and data regarding clearcut increment in Europe but, besides the discussion, there is a general agreement about the need to collect reliable scientifically robust remote sensing data for sound forest policy-making. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Harvesting, Remote Sensing, Global Forest Change </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (3): 35-37 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3892-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ascoli D, Chirici G, Francini S, Marchetti M, Motta R, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2021-06-10 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Telerilevamento e procedure automatiche: validi strumenti di supporto al monitoraggio delle utilizzazioni forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: Forests produce a wide range of ecosystem services, including the traditional wood production. Sustainable forest management approaches are used to locally calibrate wood harvesting on the basis of local conditions and should not adversely affect other ecosystem services. To assess forest harvesting sustainability and impacts it is essential to know their spatial distribution. At the present date accurate statistics on wood harvesting are not available in Italy. In this context, remote sensing and automatic mapping algorithms constitute an important tool for providing spatially explicit information to quantify wood harvesting and thus supporting more sustainable forest management approaches. In this work we tested an automatic mapping algorithm (3I3D) using multitemporal Sentinel-2 imagery to produce a map of forest disturbance produced by different types of wood harvesting in the province of Arezzo for the year 2018. Thanks to a photo-interpretation work of high resolution PlanetScope imagery and field data collected by the Carabinieri Forestali, we were able to calculate commission (2%) and omission (18%) errors of the automatic 3I3D map. The results of this work motivate the introduction of remote sensing tools as a support for monitoring and quantification of forest wood harvesting. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Remote Sensing, Sentinel-2, Forest Disturbance, Harvest, PlanetScope </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (3): 27-34 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3835-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Francini S, D’Amico G, Mencucci M, Seri G, Gravano E, Chirici G Articoli Scientifici 2021-05-07 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: La percezione del bosco negli studenti di Scienze Forestali: un’indagine presso l’Università degli Studi di Firenze <p><b>Abstract</b>: The growing interest in the positive effects of the forest on the individual and social sphere and in the cultural and social development of local realities has motivated this survey to investigate the preferences of recreational activities carried out in the forest. The study was aimed to understand the effect of the forest on the psychological conditions of its users, and to evaluate the value attributed to the ecosystem services of the forest by the users themselves. The survey focused on the perception of the forest of the students of the degree courses in Forestry and Environmental Sciences of the University of Florence. The survey population was constituted by 283 students, 219 enrolled in the three-year degree course and 64 in the master’s course; 36% of the population, 102 students, answered a questionnaire specially created for this study. The main frequentation of the forest for free leisure activities has defined psychological well-being through the sensation of “serenity”, as the one most perceived, and sensations of “energy”, “euphoria”, “quiet”, “relief” and “lucidity”. A high value was attributed to the ecosystem services of the forest, such as “local climate regulation” and “air quality regulation”, by demonstrating the weight of the background of university studies. The survey is proposed as a pilot study for the analysis of psychological well-being and the recreational services of the forest useful to numerous professionals connected to it. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Sciences, Recreational Activities In Forest, Psychological Well-being, Ecosystem Services, Semantic Differential </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (2): 22-26 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3816-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Chirici D, Sacchelli S, Salbitano F, Travaglini D, Marchi E, Cocozza C Comunicazioni Brevi 2021-03-27 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: L’impatto della ricerca scientifica, fra incerte previsioni e inaspettate conseguenze <p><b>Abstract</b>: We highlight, with the support of a couple of scientific stories, the difficulty of forecasting the impact of scientific research when you are struggling with writing a scientific project. However, sooner or later applications and positive impacts might come by themselves, if high-quality projects and scientists are appointed. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Science, Projects, Applications, Dissemination </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 20-21 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0056-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2021-02-02 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Recensioni: I disastri e la loro relazione con le foreste. Tre casi studio a supporto della gestione degli eventi estremi <p><b>Abstract</b>: This book review is a reworked and translated version of the synthesis from the report “Forest-related disasters - Three case studies and lessons for management of extreme events” by H. van Hensbergen and J. Cedergren, published by the Food And Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The volume describes the complex relationship between disasters and forests, defining the multiple roles that trees play during environmental disasters and how much this affects human activities. After a brief general introduction, the description continues through the analysis of three catastrophic events that occurred since the beginning of this century. The chronicle and the analysis of repercussions on forests and population of the storm Gudrun (Sweden, 2005), the Tohoku tsunami (Japan, 2011) and the firestorm in central Chile (Chile, 2017) are reported. From the synthesis of the three experiences, some lessons of management of extreme events are drawn, reported as a strategic suggestion to face, from a forestry point of view, the planning and reaction to catastrophic emergencies involving forests and trees. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forests, Disaster, Catastrophe, Emergency, Fire, Storm, Tsunami </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 15-19 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3764-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Chiavetta U Recensioni 2021-01-27 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Xylosandrus compactus, un nuovo parassita forestale invade l’Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: The black twig borer Xylosandrus compactus, an ambrosia beetle native to Asia, was recorded for the first time in Europe in 2011 in central Italy. This paper reports the progressive dispersal of this invasive species in many Italian regions (Campania 2011, Tuscany and Liguria 2012, Lombardy 2015, Lazio and Sicily 2016, Emilia Romagna 2018, Veneto 2019) and other European countries (France 2015, Spain and Greece 2019). The main features of the biology and ecology are reported, and the infestation symptoms and the produced damages are descripted, as well. An updated list of the potential host-plants is also provided. Finally, protocols for the pest control are suggested. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Invasive Species, Ambrosia Beetle, Asian Pest </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 8-14 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3711-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Faccoli M Articoli Scientifici 2021-01-21 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Piano Nazionale di Ripresa e Resilienza Next Generation EU: un’occasione persa per le foreste italiane <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Plan approved by the Council of Ministers of Italy on Jan 12, 2021 in Mission 2. “Green revolution and ecological transition”, Project Line 2.4 “Territory and water resource protection”, includes a specific intervention called “Forests and Protection” designated to mitigate the risks associated with hydrogeological instability, which does not provide for specific financial resources and refers to the EAFRD fund of the next programming period. In light of the actual hydrogeological emergencies of the country and the periodic announcements following each calamitous event, the choice made is incomprehensible. Not even the recent disaster that struck the forests in north-eastern Italy following the Vaia windstorm was an adequate warning to set aside for forests a two-hundredth of the funds in the PNRR. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  National Recovery and Resilience Plan, Next Generation EU, Forests, Hydrogeological Disruption, Sustainable Forest Management </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 5-7 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3751-018<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Romano R Commenti & Prospettive 2021-01-18 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Neanche VAIA resiste all’insostenibile leggerezza delle statistiche forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: Recently published data on Italian forest removals from FAO and EUROSTAT are still ridden with inaccuracies and underestimation. In this work we show how and why the Italian forestry data collection system is in itself unreliable. This represents a major obstacle for designing sector policies, ensuring the flow of forest ecosystem services from the forest to the society, and defining a role for forests, forestry and wood consistent with the European Green Deal and in the NextGenerationEU Recovery and Resilience Facility. A more reliable strategy for data collection is urgently required. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Inventory, Forest Statistics, Data Sources, Forest Harvesting, Eurostat </p><p><i>Forest@ 18 (1): 1-4 (2021) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3733-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Pettenella D, Marchetti M, Motta R, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2021-01-09 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Riflessioni su paesaggio forestale e tutela dei beni culturali <p><b>Abstract</b>: According to the European Landscape Convention (ELC), a landscape means “an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors”. Therefore, both human actions and natural processes play a role in shaping the landscape, which is, by this definition, ever changing. “Protecting” the landscape therefore means understanding, accepting and preserving such agents of change that have created it. Conversely, protective measures should not be designed to “freeze time”, nor to restore natural or human-influenced landscape features that have long ceased to exist. These basic concepts, delineated 20 years ago in Florence, are met in some parts of Italy by a dubious interpretation. Landscape protection agencies (Soprintendenze Archeologia Belle Arti e Paesaggio) seem to be oriented towards stopping or limiting the traditional activities that have shaped the current Italian forest landscape, with the purpose of increasing the forest cover for “aesthetic” reasons. Such narrow view contradicts the aims of the ELC and of the related national rules and mechanisms of landscape conservation. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Landscape, Coppice, Chestnut, Silviculture, Landscape Constraint </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (6): 109-113 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3690-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R, Agnoletti M, Marchetti M, Mori P, Romano R, Salbitano F, Sitzia T, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2020-11-05 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Redditività di pioppeti ad alto fusto e di piantagioni di latifoglie a legname pregiato in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: In Italy, forest tree crops cover an area of about 100.000 hectares of farmland: more than half are represented by specialized poplar plantations, while the remaining consists mainly of hardwood broadleaves plantations. The profitability of poplar and hardwood broadleaved plantations, assessed by field data collected on a representative number of plantation sites, was evaluated in terms of net present value and equivalent annual value under different levels of wood prices and in presence or absence of financial public incentives. Under current market conditions the investment in specialized poplar plantations is usually positive, even without subsidies. On the contrary, hardwood broadleaves plantations usually do not provide positive financial results without public incentives, while better financial results can be obtained by polycyclic plantations including both hardwood broadleaves (medium-long rotation) and hybrid poplar (short rotation) on the same parcel. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Planted Forests, Poplar, Polycyclic Plantations, Investment Analysis </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (6): 101-108 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3595-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Coaloa D, Chiarabaglio PM, Giorcelli A, Pelleri F, Plutino M, Rosso L, Corona P Articoli Scientifici 2020-11-01 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Perché dobbiamo aumentare la quantità di necromassa nelle nostre foreste? Quanta necromassa dobbiamo rilasciare? <p><b>Abstract</b>: Deadwood plays a key role in the functioning and productivity of forest ecosystem and it is an important feature for the conservation of the biodiversity. In the past land-use and forest management have dramatically reduced the amount of deadwood in the European forests and only in the last decades the important role of the deadwood has been studied and recognised. At the political/administrative level the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE) has recognized the importance of this forest component and the last year Italian Government has requested the regional forest laws and regulations to take into account deadwood and habitat/retention trees in the forest management. It is a current research priority to provide managers of European forests with a baseline of deadwood threshold retention value for decisions for their specific forest type and management target. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Deadwood, Coarse Woody Debris (CWD), Retention, Forest Sustainable Management, Biodiversity, Silviculture </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (5): 92-100 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3683-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R Commenti & Prospettive 2020-10-29 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il riconoscimento del legno per contrastare il commercio illegale: la situazione in Italia <p><b>Abstract</b>: Fighting illegal timber trade is both a local and a global issue. The regulations in force to control timber trade recognize wood identification as a critical tool for enforcing and prosecuting cases of unauthorized or prohibited trade. However, around the world this level of scrutiny is seldom applied. This article is addressed to those in Italy involved, in various capacities, with controlling the illegal trade of wood products, who are concerned about the vulnerabilities of the current protection protocols, and curious to learn about simple corrective measures that will make inspection controls in Italy more effective. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Timber Regulation, Wood Identification, Wood Species, Microscopic Wood Identification, Macroscopic Wood Identification </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (5): 88-91 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3678-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Crivellaro A, Ruffinatto F Commenti & Prospettive 2020-10-28 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Abbattimento del particolato aerodisperso (PM10 e PM2.5) in tre aree protette e due ville storiche della città di Roma nei mesi di lockdown (marzo-aprile 2020) <p><b>Abstract</b>: Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been widely demonstrated to play a role in the increase in mortality linked to cardio-respiratory diseases, in the reduction of immune system defense mechanisms, and in the transmission of pathogens. Equally accepted is the role that trees play in fine particulate matter absorption in urban areas. This study examined the capacity of particulate reduction in three protected areas in Rome within the park and nature reserve system managed by the regional organization “RomaNatura” (Riserva Naturale della Marcigliana, Riserva Naturale della Valle dell’Aniene and Parco Regionale Urbano di Aguzzano) and two historic Roman parks (Villa Ada and Villa Borghese). The study was held in March and April 2020 during the COVID 19 lockdown period. Due to the impossibility of physically gathering data and recording measurements in the field in order to define the biophysical characteristics of the areas under study, remote sensing techniques were utilized. Although such techniques may be influenced by a degree of uncertainty in the absence of calibration procedures based on in-field inspection and verification, they still constitute a preliminary phase for further investigation, especially for studying difficult-to-access areas or for project research with limited resources. The average quantities of fine and ultrafine particulate matter captured during the two-month period were 4.330.22 ± 1.429.54 Kg di PM10 and 373.33 ± 124.01 Kg di PM2.5. This data is not directly comparable to the results of similar studies conducted in much larger areas over longer periods of time. It nevertheless shows that remote sensing techniques based on free access databases and open source software can be employed by a community of motivated citizens with basic technical and scientific knowledge; it can also be a powerful means of awareness-building and involvement in the conservation of urban forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Urban Forests, Particulate Matter, PM10, PM2.5, Remote Sensing, Reflectance </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (4): 78-87 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3577-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Petrella S Articoli Scientifici 2020-08-27 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Il cinghiale (Sus scrofa) come determinante di cambiamenti di vegetazione in una foresta urbana mediterranea: impatto sulla biodiversità di un’area protetta <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Insugherata Protected Area is a remnant urban forest located on the outskirt of the city of Rome; it is rich in native plant species and biodiversity and provides several ecosystem services. Since 2004 the environmental pressure on this fragmented forest ecosystem strongly increased due to the ingression of wild boar (Sus scrofa) which currently has a permanent population in the Reserve and is considered a “pest” impacting several habitats. In 1994, before wild boars ingression, a vegetation survey was undertaken in the Reserve and 20 years later, in 2015, they were repeated in the same plots, being the presence of wild boars the only known change in pressures occurred over time. The comparison of the flora assemblage between the two periods showed a decrease in number of plant species (-15.8%), particularly in the understory. Geophyte was the life form more affected with a decrease in number of species (-22.6%) and coverage (-29.7%) from 1994 to 2015. Also species indicator of environment quality (i.e., orchids) and of biogeographical plant communities disappeared overtime, together with locally rare species, indicating a severe impact on biodiversity not only limited to plant richness. The consistent vegetation changes occurred between the two periods were also computed with a plant community turnover of approximately 40% (Sørensen index of dissimilarity) and one-way analysis of similarities p<0.05 (ANOSIM). Management of the wild boar population is needed in order to favor habitat conservation and reduce local biodiversity loss, as stated in the designation legislative framework of the Reserve. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Vegetation remnants, Urban biodiversity, Urban forest, Wildlife pressure </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (4): 71-77 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3284-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Todini A, Crosti R Articoli Scientifici 2020-08-04 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Testo unico in materia di foreste e filiere forestali: il paesaggio, i beni (e i boschi), e gli interventi da concordare <p><b>Abstract</b>: One of the implementing decrees of the Italian national forest law no. 34 of 2018 deals with the interventions to be set in the woodlands protected by the art. 136 of the national landscape and cultural heritage code (legislative decree no. 42 of 2004) and considered in compliance with the provisions of the landscape protection measures. The present commentary provides a basis for analysing the impact that the implementing decree could have and make suggestions for writing the decree. The commentary reviews the meaning of the various types of landscape use constraints, giving concrete examples and analyzing them with a focus on forest management. It presents an example framework of the interventions that could be the subject of the decree. Finally, it provides a summary of the key points to be addressed for the preparation of the decree. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Landscape, Woodlands, Forestry, Landscape Heritage, Urbani Code, National Forest Law </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (4): 63-70 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3567-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Sitzia T Commenti & Prospettive 2020-07-14 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: L’implementazione della Strategia Forestale Nazionale a livello locale: un’opportunità importante, non facile da cogliere <p><b>Abstract</b>: In Italy, the National Forestry Strategy (SFN) is being implemented: it is an important operational framework to be sized by Regional Governments to which the administrative competences in the forestry sector are delegated. We focus here on the main problems that have to be solved to promote SFN at the local level. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest, Management, Region, Government, TUFF, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (3): 58-62 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0057-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Romano S Commenti & Prospettive 2020-06-11 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Una selvicoltura a regola d’arte per gli obbiettivi della strategia forestale nazionale <p><b>Abstract</b>: In Italy, in these days, the National Forest Strategy (SFN) is being developed, which takes sustainable forest management as a reference to ensure the conservation and use of forests. Artfully performed silvicultural treatments are required to meet the challenging SFN objectives, we highlight here. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Italy, National Forest Strategy, Sustainable Forest Management, Silviculture </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (3): 56-57 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0058-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2020-06-03 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Le foreste urbane ai tempi del COVID-19 ci proteggono dalle polveri sottili <p><b>Abstract</b>: In these days, the role that fine particles in urban areas could play in facilitating the pandemic spread of the COVID-19 virus is becoming increasingly important. It is also well known that exposure to air pollution and in particular to fine dust favors diseases involving the respiratory system. In this context of strong concern, we argue that urban forests can contribute to reduce the concentrations of particulates or in any increase their dispersion. Not all tree species have the same performance in removing particulates. In this short article, recent works are commented that classify urban forest species according to their ability to reduce particulate matter ambient concentrations, and we conclude highlighting the significant role that urban forests could play in improving air quality and human wellbeing in the future. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Urban Forests, Air pollution, Particulate matter, PM2.5, COVID-19 </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (3): 48-51 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3494-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Fares S, Sanesi G, Vacchiano G, Salbitano F, Marchetti M Commenti & Prospettive 2020-05-06 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Le prospettive della bioeconomia, tra strategie, Green Deal e Covid19 <p><b>Abstract</b>: The importance of a sustainable and circular bioeconomy in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has been recognized at various political levels. The EU Green Deal is one of the most transformative European political initiatives in recent decades. However, such a great vision and ambition can not be delivered without looking at the essence of the economic model we have created, without fundamentally rethinking the way we produce and consume. What is needed is a system change. We have to connect and implement transformative policies holistically to achieve the systemic change that is urgently needed. The bioeconomy, a circular economy based on renewable biological resources and sustainable biobased solutions, could certainly contribute. Three features could help to connect the dots in the Green Deal: bioeconomy is fundamental for inclusive prosperity and fair social transition; moving towards a carbon neutral EU requires moving towards fossil-free energy and fossil-free materials, to replace carbon intense products, such as nanocellulose, wood based textiles, wood engeenering; address the past failure of the economy to value nature and biodiversity. Biological diversity determines the capacity of biological resources to adapt and evolve in a changing environment and is a prerequisite for a long-term, sustainable and resilient bioeconomy. Therefore, bioeconomy is a great opportunity to modernize and make industries more circular: renewable biological resources, like forest resources, are, if managed sustainably at local and responsibly at global level, circular by nature and often easier to manufacture. The potential and crucial role of forests and forestry is not yet addressed enough at European level. Some good examples from member states and economic sectors should be adopted as the main way to promote sustainability at all levels, social, ecological, economic. The stewardship of forest ecosystem services such as biodiversity provision, hydrogeological protection and landscape conservation has increased. In addition to the main dramatic role for the conservation of biodiversity and the mitigation of climate crisis, forests could pave a strategic road to the creation of new green jobs, tackling the new direction that are requested after the current time of pandemic for rethinking our common future. Also in Italy, nowadays the conditions are ripe to plan for a responsible management of the natural capital in the country’s forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Bioeconomy, Forests, Strategies, Green Deal, Covid-19 </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (3): 52-55 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0059-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M, Palahí M Commenti & Prospettive 2020-05-06 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Il ricordo di un grande Maestro: Ezio Magini <p><b>Abstract</b>: He passed away twenty years ago, but the memory of Prof. Ezio Magini is alive in Italian forest scientists. He was a distinguished professor of Silviculture at the University of Florence, pionieer of quantitative Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding in Italy. Of high intellectual honesty and lovable personality, always willing to teach with patience to young people, he was a great example of methodological rigor, in terms of setting up clear hypotheses, sound experimental planning and data collection, in depth statistical analysis: a great guide for all of us. Thanks once again, Prof. Magini! </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Silviculture, Forest Genetics, Forest Tree Breeding, University of Florence, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (2): 42-47 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0060-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Giannini R Commenti & Prospettive 2020-04-29 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: “Fire Ecology Across Boundaries”: il Congresso Internazionale di Firenze dedicato agli incendi <p><b>Abstract</b>: The current operating model based only on the approach of fire suppression has generated what experts call the “fire-paradox”: the control of all wildfires in the seasons with mild weather generates a fuel load which increases the probability of catastrophic wildfires in the years with extreme climate. Even though the fire has been present on earth long before man, and for at least 440 million years it has been an essential component of many land ecosystems, today wildfires are a recurrent social emergency that modern human and financial resources cannot manage. The present challenges stress the need to enhance the debate on potential solutions according to fire ecology: efficient alternatives to the wildfire suppression at all cost, the use of more traditional landscape management for adaptation of ecosystems under a changing climate, the benefits of prescribing fire to maintain long-term ecosystem services and finally the need to establish a wildfire risk culture through transdisciplinary science and enhance effective societal engagement. The “Fire Ecology Across Boundaries” Congress to be held in Florence from 20 to 23 October 2020 ( will be the opportunity to discuss the ecology and management of fire together with top international experts. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Fire Ecology, Wildfire, Florence, Conference </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (2): 38-41 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3415-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> De Agostini N, Calvani G, Cacciatore I, Ascoli D, Tonarelli L, Prat-Guitart N, Marchi E Comunicazioni Brevi 2020-04-09 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Articoli Scientifici: Valutazione speditiva della potenzialità fitodepurativa di boschi ripariali <p><b>Abstract</b>: This technical note describes a quick methodology to classify the phytodepurative potential of riparian forest stands. Some municipalities located within landscapes characterized by both intensive agricultural and industrial activities in Central Italy are considered as test areas. Starting from the on-screen interpretation of high-resolution digital aerial orthophotos, supported by accurate ground surveys and GIS operations, it has been possible to map the riparian forest stands and classify each of them based on factors representing their phytodepurative potential. The proposed mapping process, feasible and easily replicable, provides a support tool for analysis and planning related to phytoremediation and/or to identify conservation and environmental management priorities and, depending on the goals of the phytoremediation objectives, to define where to locate eventual specific technical interventions. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Maps, Poplars, Riparian Forests, GIS, Cartography </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (2): 33-37 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3298-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Mattioli W, Chiarabaglio PM, Rosso L, Meloni R, Corona P Articoli Scientifici 2020-03-30 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: Aggiornamento sulla consistenza delle sugherete in Calabria <p><b>Abstract</b>: Cork oak forests (Quercus suber L.) are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the western Mediterranean Basin. The aim of this technical note is the presentation of the results of a recent survey carried out in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on the current distribution of cork oak forests. At present, there are few isolated forest stands, often small, on both coasts and in some inland areas of the region. In the past the cork oak forests in Calabria were much more widespread; however, the results here presented can support suitable conservation, management and, where possible, the economic valorization of the remaining cork oak stands. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Quercus suber, Forest Mapping, Forest Ecosystems, Italy </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 30-32 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3293-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ienco A, Bernardini V, Scalercio S, Turco R, Corona P Rapporti Tecnici 2020-02-01 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Le politiche climatiche ed ambientali hanno bisogno di informazione e comunicazione corretta. Quale è il ruolo del mondo scientifico? <p><b>Abstract</b>: A petition entitled “Italian forests: an invaluable environmental heritage under attack” was recently published on the web. The petition is a perfect example of how environmental communication and public awareness can be manipulated. And, even more seriously, how people claiming to be environmental experts, use the “environment” label to spread their messages and slogans without accurately checking their sources. It is nevertheless of high importance that people are able to express their opinion and ideas freely and this communication between politics, communities and the academic world contribute to our growth as a society. However, any discussions must be underpinned with accurate and precise information. Furthermore, it is the scientific community’s duty to check sources of information and contribute to the spread of accurate environmental communication. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Science Communication, Scientific Debate, Sustainable Forest Management, Climate-Smart Forestry, Public Engagement </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 17-22 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3348-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R, Marchetti M, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2020-01-21 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Conosci il mondo dei legni: nuovi strumenti di identificazione del legno per i professionisti del settore <p><b>Abstract</b>: Illegal logging and related illegal timber trade are currently recognized as one of the world’s most pressing environmental problems. In several timber-exporting countries most of the trees are illegally cut, resulting in significant losses of incomes and irreversible damage to forests. In the last years several laws and regulations have been introduced to tackle global illegal trade of wood, such as the 2008 amendment to the US Lacey act, or the European Timber Regulation (EUTR). Professionals of the timber sector are therefore more and more called to a better knowledge of the material they are dealing with, and the identification of the wood species is one of the crucial steps necessary to verify timber legality. In this paper we introduce some recently developed tools aimed at facilitating non-experts to effectively identify wood through macroscopic analysis and possibly find substitutes for woods of uncertain legality. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Macroscopic Wood Identification, Atlas, Identification Key, Software, CITES </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 23-26 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3342-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Ruffinatto F, Castro G, Cremonini C, Crivellaro A, Urso T, Zanuttini R Comunicazioni Brevi 2020-01-21 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: “The answer, my friends… is written in the rings”: un ricordo di Fritz Hans Schweingruber (Fritz) <p><b>Abstract</b>: A short note in memoriam of Fritz Schweingruber (1936-2020), dendrochronologist and wood anatomist, deceased on January 7th. A shared remembrance, through a few stories and anecdotes, by three Italian forest scientists and their close encounters with Fritz. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Dendrocronologia, Anatomia del Legno, Fieldweek, Tree Rings </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 27-29 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3357-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Urbinati C, Pividori M, Cherubini P Comunicazioni Brevi 2020-01-21 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Basilicata, terra di boschi e studi forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: Basilicata, a land of forests and home to a Forest Sciences university program. We talk about the launch, in the eighties, of the higher education program in Forest Sciences at the University of Basilicata, in Southern Italy. Basilicata is a land of beautiful forests that have undergone great manipulation over time. We shortly describe their history in the last two centuries, and talk about some scholars who studied these forests in the postwar period until the early eighties. Afterwards, we recall the early years of Forest Sciences courses at the University of Basilicata. In a separate box, we deal with the possibility to restore the mixed silver fir/beech forest in the mountains of Basilicata: we address the ways in which silver fir natural regeneration can be promoted, where this species is still present; and the reasons and know-how for reintroducing it, where silver fir is no longer present. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  University, Potenza, Deforestation, Silver fir, Mixed forests, Restoration </p><p><i>Forest@ 17 (1): 1-16 (2020) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0062-017<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M, Moretti N Commenti & Prospettive 2020-01-08 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Note conclusive al XII congresso nazionale SISEF <p><b>Abstract</b>: The 12th national congress of the Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology (SISEF) has been held in Palermo from Novembre 12th to 14th, 2019; hereafter a short picture of congress subjects, participation and comments are reported. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  SISEF, Congresso, Partecipazione, Palermo </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (6): 86 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0063-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Maetzke FG, La Mela Veca DS, La Mantia T Comunicazioni Brevi 2019-12-21 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Il Decreto CLIMA: nuove opportunità per le aree forestali ad elevato valore naturalistico <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Decree on Climate 2019 represents an innovative and concrete framework for applying the international recommendations aimed at preventing and mitigating the effects of climate change. It focuses, in addition to many environment-related aspects, on the old-growth forests, recognizing them as forest ecosystems of high environmental value, defining their main ecological traits. According to this legislation, the extent of these forests in Italy is important, since many forest ecosystems have been left unmanaged from more than 60 years. Even if these stands are not always characterized by high level of naturalness, they are currently evolving towards more complex structures, due to the absence of human-related disturbance. Old-growth forests are unique ecosystems with a high structural complexity and peculiarities that are absent in managed forests. They are also an essential point of reference for sustainable forest management and environmental monitoring, in terms of conservation of biological diversity and ecological processes. For these reasons, they represent a unique benchmark for developing silvicultural models that incorporate knowledge of structural complexity (vertical and spatial) and developmental processes, duration of development and particularly the role of disturbances in creating structural legacies that become key elements of the post-disturbance stands. These forests, as the new Decrete underlines, must be protected, preserved and monitored in a long-term perspective, in order to safeguard their biodiversity, avoiding the structural simplification, which often characterizes the managed forests. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Old-growth Forests, Climate Change, Biodiversity Conservation, National Legislation, Long-term Forest Monitoring </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (6): 83-85 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0064-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Lombardi F, Tognetti R, Marchetti M Editoriali 2019-12-18 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Comunicazioni Brevi: Sul XXV IUFRO World Congress “Forest Research and Cooperation for Sustainable Development” <p><b>Abstract</b>: L’America Latina per la prima volta ha ospitato il congresso mondiale della Unione Internazionale degli Istituti di Ricerca Forestale, il XXV IUFRO World Congress “Forest Research and Cooperation for Sustainable Development”, che si è svolto a Curitiba (Paranà, Brasile) dal 25 settembre al 5 ottobre 2019. Si presentano le principali statistiche in termini di partecipazione e organizzazione, con particolare riferimento al contributo della delegazione italiana, e si descrivono i principali temi affrontati nelle presentazioni di tutte le sessioni (plenarie, sub-plenarie, tecniche e poster). Questi diventano spunto per alcuni commenti e note rispetto a tematiche di primaria attualità, quali principalmente cambiamento climatico e deforestazione, e alla posizione che la IUFRO ricopre rispetto a questi temi </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  IUFRO, XXV World Congress, Word cloud, Presentations keywords </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (6): 79-82 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3281-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Mariotti B, Marchetti M Comunicazioni Brevi 2019-11-27 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Editoria scientifica, le ambiguità dell’open-access <p><b>Abstract</b>: Science must be open to all. This is the consideration behind the tendency of public research funding agencies (EU first of all) to “force” researchers to publish their results in open-access journals, or pay to ensure that articles are freely readable. Even the most remote researcher must be able to read a scientific article. Everything seems good, but is it really true? We see some side effects: (i) whoever reads no longer pays, but obviously someone has to pay, otherwise how publishing companies will survive? In fact, large groups are already organized, going towards open access fees, although more elegantly they speak of article processing charge (APC, mandatory); (ii) should this situation become general (all open-access journals with APC mandatory), researchers from a disadvantaged area could read, but they would have trouble publishing. It is true that journals could reduce or remove APCs in such cases, but these are always concessions to be negotiated on a case by case basis; (iii) as the most sensitive aspect: the balance of each journal will depend on how many APCs are collected, and editorial decisions are likely to be influenced by the ambition to increase journals’ budget; (iv) in the end, one may think that the tendency towards this kind of “open science” was appreciated by large publishing groups, which could see APC as a business richer than subscriptions. Some proposals in this regard: (i) if you have a good scientific “story” to tell, at present there is no need to resort to journals that apply APC mandatory, especially if managed by groups clearly oriented to business; rather, use your resources to buy free access to your work after acceptance; (ii) the funding agencies themselves could support free access to the most significant papers, after their publication, and scientific societies could play an important role in this respect; (iii) journals may require public data repository, and funding agencies may support open publications in these journals; to me, this seems one of the most important steps towards a truly open and increasingly credible science. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Scientific Publishing, Open-access Journals, Article Processing Charge, Public Data Repository </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (6): 77-78 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0065-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Borghetti M Editoriali 2019-11-24 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: “Decreto clima 2019”: quali risorse per le foreste e la selvicoltura nelle nostre città? <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Decree on Climate 2019 focuses on reforestation campaigns and silviculture actions applied to existing forests of Italian metropolitan cities, incurring a total expenditure of €30 million in the next two years. By supporting urban and peri-urban forestry programmes, the decree represents an innovative scheme within the framework of environmental legislation on climate actions. The decision appears strategic as it depicts new scenarios for the cities of tomorrow involving sequence design, implementation and management of urban forests as key components to challenge climate change effects on the urban environment. Italian research in the field of urban forestry and related issues is well prepared to tackle the challenge thanks to 25 years of experience in “planting, growing, and caring for” ideas, knowledge, and methods applied to the ecology and functioning of urban and peri-urban forests. This wealth of experience is at the service of the community and of stakeholders who will be directly or indirectly involved in the implementation of the Decree on Climate 2019. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Urban and Peri-urban Forests, Climate Change, Environmental Legislation, Green Infrastructure </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 74-76 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0067-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Salbitano F, Sanesi G Editoriali 2019-10-16 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Piantare alberi in Italia per il benessere del pianeta. Dove come e perché <p><b>Abstract</b>: The Laudato Si’ communities have put forward the proposal to plant 60 million trees in Italy to fight the climate crisis. The role of forests in mitigating climate change is scientifically unequivocal. However, a sound reforestation strategy must be consistent with the country’s environmental, forest and socio-economic context. Italian forests and the 12 billion trees they contain currently absorb 5-10% of the total country emissions; 60 million trees would result in an additional sequestration of 0.05% of the CO2 emitted annually. Furthermore, forested areas in Italy are rapidly increasing on rural and marginal sites. On the contrary, forests are disappearing in lowlands and urban centers. Cities and suburbs are the areas where new forests could play an important role in climate mitigation, contributing to the mitigation of heat waves and air pollution, and increasing the well-being of citizens. To be successful, interventions to mitigate the climate crisis cannot be exhausted within the forest sector. Forestry-related strategies must be diversified, and include reducing deforestation, planting new forests, increasing the efficacy of sustainable and adaptive forest management, and taking advantage of the substitution effects played by wood-based materials. New urban forests, if subject to scientifically based design and planning, are an important part of this strategy. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Climate Change Mitigation, Reforestation, Urban Forests, Sustainable and Adaptive Forest Strategies </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 59-65 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3260-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Marchetti M, Motta R, Salbitano F, Vacchiano G Commenti & Prospettive 2019-10-10 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti di Progetto: Linee guida per una gestione forestale compatibile con la conservazione dell’orso bruno marsicano <p><b>Abstract</b>: Forests provide a wide range of important ecosystem services and, among these benefits, biodiversity and wildlife habitat. Forest management (including no active control) deeply affects wildlife management, since it can alter habitat structure and productivity, speed-up evolution of ecosystems, and impact on wildlife ability to survive and reproduce. Unfortunately still very often, practitioners, forest planners and policy-makers fail to understand this opportunity. Forest management can maintain and enhance quality, quantity and availability of natural resources for wildlife, and therefore it is a valuable management tool long recognized in the wildlife practice. This is particularly true for species associated to forest ecosystems which are threatened or endangered, such as the Apennine brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus). Based on an extensive literature review on forest management-bear interactions, we report recommended management actions and associated working techniques, hereby illustrated and discussed in order to define a set of forest management guidelines meant to promote and encourage the adoption of adequate silviculture practices in Apennine forests, as well as to facilitate and support the range expansion of Apennine brown bear beyond its current core distribution. Our aim is also to present these guidelines to a wider scientific audience and decision-makers to foster their implementation into management practices, especially within protected areas. Finally, our ultimate goal is to fill the gap between disciplines such as silviculture and animal ecology, with the aim of stimulating the multidisciplinary approach requested not only for the conservation of the Apennine brown bear but for the integrated and enhanced management of wildlife in general. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest Management, Forest Planning, Habitat, Wildlife Forestry, Ursus arctos marsicanus </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 66-73 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3194-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Rositi A, Console C, Di Santo D, Gentile C, Logiudice L, Posillico M, Sammarone L, Ciucci P Rapporti di Progetto 2019-10-10 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editoriali: Informazione e disinformazione forestale al tempo del web: il caso dell’alluvione del Monte Amiata <p><b>Abstract</b>: A sever flood event hit Mt. Amiata region in July 2019. We know that trees can help to reduce or prevent flooding, but we also know that there are thresholds in this mitigation/prevention role and when these limits are exceeded we have to expect damages that cannot be avoided. Frequencies of extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and heat waves are increasing and expected to increase in the future. Researchers and managers have to dedicate time and effort to communicate better with stakeholders about the role of the forest and the forest management regarding these events and address the discussion on facts instead that on opinions. Facts are accurate statements while opinions are expressed statements that are believed to be true but may or may not be facts. The Amiata flood event is an example where the discussion spread in many media has been mainly based on opinions rather than facts. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Flooding, Mitigation/Prevention, Forest Management, Fake news </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 56-58 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0068-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Motta R Editoriali 2019-09-04 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commenti & Prospettive: Riflessioni sulla viabilità forestale e opere connesse a supporto delle iniziative per la predisposizione dei decreti attuativi del Testo Unico in materia di Foreste e Filiere Forestali <p><b>Abstract</b>: The forest road network provides access to the forest area to facilitate the conservation, the management and the value of forest ecosystems. In the case of poor design as well as poor or absent maintenance, the forest road network can cause significant environmental impacts, which can result in erosion and sedimentation, landslides, effects on flora and fauna and landscape impacts. In order to avoid such impacts, the road network must be planned, built and maintained in a correct and adequate way according to the environment in which the same roads are inserted. As consequence, the present paper would like to propose some considerations about forest road functions, definitions as well as in term of standard design and planning to support the implementation of the operative guidelines of the recent consolidate law on forestry. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Forest roads, Forest management, Forest operations, Ecological impacts </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 49-55 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor3175-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Grigolato S, Marchi E, Laschi A, Cavalli R Commenti & Prospettive 2019-09-02 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Rapporti Tecnici: Sull’utilizzo di micro-cariche di esplosivo per la fenditura di ceppaie fuori terra <p><b>Abstract</b>: In the restoration works after the VAIA storm, one problem concerns the removal of above ground stumps. Since any mechanical method will hardly provide positive results, one possibility, reported in this note, concerns the idea of using micro-size charges of explosive to split the above-ground tree stumps. </p><p><b>Keywords</b>:  Stabilità dei versanti, Tempesta Vaia, Ripristino ambientale, Riodin </p><p><i>Forest@ 16 (5): 48 (2019) </i> - doi: 10.3832/efor0069-016<br/><a href="" target="_blank"> </a> </p><hr size="1"/> Cavalli R Rapporti Tecnici 2019-08-31 Copyright (c) 2022, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved